FANDOM


Anglo-saxon-chronicle
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is usually believed to have been started during the reign of King Alfred who ruled in Wessex from 871 to 899. Copies were kept in various monasteries, and to some extent expanded and brought up to date. This article mostly restricts itself to discussing the Chronicle entries relating to the Arthurian period.

ManuscriptsEdit

The Anglo-Saxon manuscript survives in four main different recensions, plus other less important recensions.

The most important is the Winchester Manuscript (Cambridge, Corpus Christi College MS. 173, ff. 1v–32r. This is traditionally abbreviated as A or as Ā. The text was at one time owned by Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury 1559–75, and is according often referred to as “The Parker Chronicle”. It is the only Chronicle manuscript in which the language has not been brought into conformity with the late West Saxon literary standard. The manuscript was transferred from Winchester to Canterbury, perhaps because Canterbury’s own copy of the Chronicle had been lost or destroyed.

Before the Winchester Manuscript was taken to Canterbury, a copy was made at Winchester. This survived as British Library MS Cotton Otho Bxi 2, until being mostly destroyed in a fire in 1731. However a copy had been made by the antiquary Laurence Novell which was used as the basis for an edition by Andrew Wheloc. Where the more important representative of the Winchester Manuscript is abbreviated as Ā, this manuscript is abbreviated as A. Otherwise it is abbreviated as A² or as W, standing for Wheloc, or as G.

The other surviving manuscripts are abbreviated as B, C, D, E, F, and H. Only E and F are important for the Arthurian period.

Manuscript E (Oxford, Bodleian Library MS Laud 636) is known as the Peterborough Manuscript. It appears that the monastery and Peterborough lost its own copy of the Chronicle in a fire in 1116. Accordingly they borrowed a version for a monstery in Kent which the then updated. The Chronicle was continued until 1154. This manuscript once belonged to William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury 1633–45 and is sometimes called the “Laud Chronicle”.

Manuscript F (British Library MS Cotton Domitian Aviii, ff. 30–70) was written in the year 1100 at Christ Church, Canterbury. It may have been abridged from the Canterbury chronicle with provided an exemplar for E. Each Old English entry is followed by a translation into Latin. The scribe made various annotations and erasures.

Early Material in the Anglo-Saxon ChronicleEdit

How much the ninth-century English remembered of the period of the conquest is unknown. Traditions embedded in the Chronicle suggest that little was remembered that was considered trustworthy. Much of the material that survives appears to have been adapted from Bede’s Ecclesiastical History and from his Greater Chronicle. The material on the Kings of Wessex is far from full and archaeological evidence suggests that Wessex, as a kingdom, evolved from the north, not from a seacoast settlement by the legendary Cerdic. That the genealogy in Cott. Tib. A, iii, f. 178 and manuscripts B, C, and D make Cynric to be son of an otherwise unknown Creoda son of Cerdic, rather than the son of Cerdic himself as in other genealogies, suggests at least some confusion.

Some of the other details in the Chronicle, particularly of the battles against Hengist, are also found in the Historia Brittonum.

Texts from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Relating to the Arthurian PeriodEdit

IntroductionEdit

The modern English translation of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle by E. E. C. Gomme, published in 1909, appears here, as it is in public domain and good enough. Gomme uses the A manuscript as his base, including material from other versions of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle when they provide text that adds to the A manuscript or when they contain a substantially different reading. Gomme does not always distinguish places where A’s text is obviously a later edition, often taken from Bede. Readers to whom this is important, should use a more modern translation, such as that of Michael Swanton.

Introduction to the Parker Chronicle (A)Edit

Gomme’s TranslationEdit

[PARKER MS.[1]]

In the year, when was past from the birth of Christ four hundred and ninety-four winters, Cerdic and Cynric his son landed at Cerdicesora with five ships. And this Cerdic was son of Elesa, Elesa of Esla, Esla of Gewis, Gewis of Wig, Wig of Freawin, Freawin of Frithogar, Frithogar of Brand, Brand of Bældæg, Bældæg of Woden.

And about six years after they landed, they conquered the kingdom of the West-Saxons; and they were the first kings that conquered[2] the land of the West-Saxons from the Welsh. And he had the kingdom sixteen years; and when he died, his son Cynric succeeded to the kingdom and held[3] it seventeen winters. When he died, Ceol succeeded to the kingdom and held it six[4] years. When he died, Ceolwulf his brother succeeded and he reigned seventeen years; and their kin goes back to Cerdic. Then Cynegils, Ceolwulf’s brother’s son, succeeded to the kingdom and reigned thirty-one[5] winters; and he first received baptism of the kings of the West-Saxons. And then Cenwalh succeeded and held the kingdom thirty-one winters; and this Cenwalh was son of Cjoegils; and then Sexburg his queen held the kingdom one year after him. Then Æscwin succeeded to the kingdom, whose kin goes back to Cerdic, and held it two years. Then Centwin, son of Cynegils, succeeded to the kingdom of the West-Saxons and reigned seven years.[6]. Then Ceadwalla succeeded to the kingdom, whose kin goes back to Cerdic, and held it three years. Then Ine succeeded to the kingdom of the Saxons,[7] whose kin goes back to Cerdic, and held it thirty-seven winters. Then Æthelhard succeeded thereto, whose kin goes back to Cerdic, and held [the kingdom] fourteen winters.[8] Then Cuthred succeeded, whose kin goes back to Cerdic, and held [the kingdom] seventeen years. Then Sigebert succeeded, whose kin goes back to Cerdic, and held [the kingdom] one year. Then Cynewulf succeeded to the kingdom, whose kin goes back to Cerdic, and held it thirty-one winters. Then Berhtric succeeded to the kingdom, whose kin goes back to Cerdic, and held it sixteen years. Then Egbert succeeded to the kingdom, and held it thirty-seven winters and seven months; and then Æthelwulf, his son, succeeded, and held [the kingdom] eighteen and a half years. This Æthelwulf was son of Egbert, Egbert of Ealhmund, Ealhmund of Eafa, Eafa of Eoppa, Eoppa of Ingild, Ingild of Cenred—and Ine of Cenred, and Cuthburg [daughter] of Centred, and Cwenburg [daughter] of Cenred—Cenred of Ceolwald, Ceolwald of Cuthwulf, Cuthwulf of Cuthwin, Cuthwin of Celm, Celm of Cynric,[9] Cynric of Cerdic.

Gomme’s Notes to the IntroductionEdit

  1. Besides A this genealogical preface is only found in Cott. Tib. A, iii, f. 178, a single leaf which has been thought to have belonged originally to MS. B. I indicate the readings of this leaf by the letter P.
  2. Took from the Welsh.—P.
  3. And held it twenty-six winters. When he died, Ceawlin succeeded thereto and held it seventeen years.—P.
  4. Five.—P.
  5. Twenty.—P.
  6. Nine.— P.
  7. West-Saxons.—P.
  8. Sixteen years.—P.
  9. Cynric of Creoda, Creoda of Cerdic.—P.

Fifth and Sixth CenturiesEdit

Gomme’s TranslationEdit

403 [E]. Innocentius papa hie misit decretalem epistolam Victricio Rotomagensi archiepiscopo. Hie constituit sabbato ieiunare quia eo die Dominus jacuit in sepulchro.

409 [E]. Here the city of the Romans was stormed by the Goths about eleven hundred and ten winters after it was built. The kings of the Romans did not reign Britain four hundred and seventy winters since Caius Julius first sought the land. 409 [A]. Here the Goths took the city of Rome by storm and never since have the Romans ruled in Britain, this was about eleven hundred and ten winters after it was built. Altogether they ruled in Britain four hundred and seventy winters since Caius Julius first sought the land. 418 [A]. Here the Romans collected all the gold-hoards that were in Britain and some they hid in the earth so that no one might afterwards find them; and others they carried with them into Gaul.

423 [A]. Here Theodosius the younger succeeded to the realm.

425 [E]. Hujus temporis aetate extitit exordium regum Francorum, primus Faramundus.

430 [E]. Here Palladius[1] the bishop was sent to the Scots by Celestinus the pope that he might confirm their faith.

430 [E]. Here Patrick was sent by Celestinus the pope to preach baptism to the Scots.

431 [E]. Hoc tempore diabolus in Creta Judeis in specie Moysi apparens ad terram repromissionis per mare pede sicco perducere promittit; sicque plurimis necatis reliqui ad Xp̄i gratiam convertuntur.

433 [E]. Celestinus papa: hujus tempore aggregata est Ephesina synodus ducentorum episcopum, cui prefuit Cirillus Alexandrinus presul adversus Nestorium Constantinopolitanum episcopum.

439 [E]. Leo papa: hic sanciuit Calcedonensem Sinodum.

443 [A]. Here the Britons sent [over sea][2] to Rome and begged for their help against the Picts, but they had none there because they were warring against Attila king of the Huns. And then they sent to the Angles and entreated the like of the athelings of the Angle-race.

444 [F]. Here died St. Martin.

449 [A]. Here Mauricius[3] and Valentinus succeeded to the realm and reigned seven winters. And in their days Hengist and Horsa, invited by [[Vortigern|Wyrtgeorn] king of the Britons, sought Britain on the shore which is called Ebbsfleet—at first in aid of the Britons, but afterwards they fought against them. The king commanded them to fight against the Picts and so they did, and had the victory wheresoever they came. Then they sent to Anglia and bade more reinforcements be sent to them and bade them be told of the worthlessness of the Britons and the excellencies of the land. Then they sent them more reinforcements. At that time came the men from three tribes of Germany—from the Old-Saxons, from the Angles, from the Jutes. From the Jutes came the Kentish-men and the Wightware, that is, the tribe which now inhabits the Isle of Wight, and that race among the West-Saxons which is yet called the race of the Jutes. From the old-Saxons came East-Saxons and South-Saxons and West-Saxons. From Anglia—which has ever since stood waste between the Jutes and the Saxons—came East-Angles, Middle-Angles, Mercians and all the Northumbrians.

449 [E]. Hujus tempore celebratur Calcedonense concilium dcxxx episcoporum adversus Euticem abbatem et Dioscorum. Here Martianus ad Valentinus succeeded to the realm and reigned seven winters. And in their days Wyrtgeorn invited the Angle-race hither and they came in three keels hither to Britain at the stead [called] Ebbsfleet. The king Wyrtgeorn gave them land in the south-east of this country on condition that they should fight against the Picts. Then they fought against the Picts and had the victory wheresoever they came. Then they sent to Anglia, bade more reinforcements be sent to them and bade them be told of the worthlessness of the Britons and the excellencies of the land. Straightway they sent hither a larger force to the aid of the others. Then came the men from three tribes of Germany—from the Old-Saxons, from the Angles, from the Jutes. From the Jutes came the Kentish-men and the Wightware, that is, the tribe which now inhabits the isle of Wight, and that race among the West-Saxons which is yet called the race of the Jutes. From the Old-Saxons came East-Saxons and South-Saxons and West-Saxons. From Anglia-which has ever since stood waste between the Jutes and the Saxons—came East-Angles, Middle-Angles, Mercians and all the Northumbrians. Their leaders were two brothers, Hengist and Horsa-they were sons of Wihtgils: Wihtgils was son of Witta, Witta of Wecta, Wecta of Woden: from this Woden sprang all our royal race and that of the Southumbrians also.

448 [F]. Here John baptist revealed his head to two monks, who came from the east to offer up their prayers in Jerusalem, on the spot which was whilome Herod’s dwelling. In the same time Martianus and Valentinus reigned, and in that time came the Angle-race to this land, invited by king Wyrtgeorn, in order to help him overcome his foes. They came to this land with three long ships and their leaders were Hengist and Horsa: first of all they slew the king’s foes and drove them away and afterwards they turned against the king and against the Britons and destroyed them with fire and sword’s edge.

455 [A] Here Hengist and Horsa fought against Wyrtgeorn the king at the place which is called Ægelesthrep[4] and his brother Horsa was slain and after that Hengist succeeded to the kingdom and Æsc his son.

457 [A] Here Hengist and Æsc fought against the Britons at the place which is called Crecganford (Crayford), and there slew four thousand men: and then the Britons forsook Kent-land and in great fear fled to London.[5]

465 [A]. Here Hengist and Æsc fought against the Welsh near Wippedsfleet and there slew twelve Welsh aldormen; and one of their thegns was slain whose name was Wipped.

473 [A]. Here Hengist and Æsc fought against the Welsh and took spoils innumerable; and the Welsh fled from the Angles like fire.[6]

477 [A]. Here Ælle and his three sons, Cymen and Wlencing and Cissa, came to Britain with three ships at the place, which is named Cymenes-ora [Shoreham?], and there slew many Welsh and some they drove in flight into the wood that is named Andred’s-lea.

482 [F]. Here the blessed abbot Benedict, by the glory of his miracles, shone in this world as the blessed Gregory relates in his book of Dialogues.

485 [A]. Here Ælle fought against the Welsh near the bank of Mearcrædsburn.

488 [A]. Here Æsc succeeded to the kingdom and was king of the Kentish-men twenty-four winters.

490 [E]. Hoc tempore beatus Mamertus, episcopus Viennensis, solennes letanias instituit rogationum.

491 [A]. Here Ælle and Cissa besieged Andredescester and slew all that dwelt therein-not even a single Briton was left.

495 [A]. Here two aldormen came to Britain, Cerdic and Cynric his son, with five ships at the place which is called Cerdices-ora [Charford], and the same day they fought against the Welsh.

501 [A]. Here Port and his two sons, Bieda and Mægla, came to Britain with two ships at the place which is called Portsmouth [and straightway landed][7] and slew a young British man of high nobility.

508 [A]. Here Cerdic and Cynric slew a British king, whose name was Natan-leod, and five thousand men with him. After that the country was named Natanlea [Netley] as far as Cerdicesford [Charford].

509 [F]. Here St. Benedict the abbot, father of all monks, fared to heaven.

514 [A]. Here came the West-Saxons, Stuf and Wihtgar, to Britain with three ships at a place which is called Cerdices-ora; and they fought against the Britons and put them to flight.

514 [E]. Here the West-Saxons came to Britain with three ships at the place which is called Cerdices-ora; and Stuf and Wihtgar fought against the Britons and put them to flight.

519 [A]. Here Cerdic and Cynric succeeded to the kingdom of the West-Saxons; and the same year they fought against the Britons where it is now named Cerdicesford. And from that day forth the royal offspring of the West-Saxons have reigned.

527 [A]. Here Cerdic and Cynric fought against the Britons at the place which is called Cerdices-lea.

528 [E]. Hoc tempore Dionisius in urbe R. circulum paschalem composuit. Tunc Priscianus profunda grammatica rimatus est.

530 [A]. Here Cerdic and Cynric conquered the island of Wight and slew many men at Wihtgarasburg [Carisbrooke].

534 [A]. Here Cerdic died and Cynric his son reigned from that time twenty-six winters; and they gave the whole island of Wight to their two nephews, Stuf and Wihtgar.

538 [A]. Here, fourteen days before the kalends of March (Feb. 16th), the sun was eclipsed from early morning till nine of the clock.

540 [A]. Here the sun was eclipsed on xii kal. July (June 2oth) and the stars showed themselves full-nigh half an hour after nine of the clock.

544 [A]. Here Wihtgar died and was buried in Wihtgarasburg [Carisbrooke].

547 [A]. Here Ida succeeded to the kingdom, from whom arose the royal race of the Northumbrians: and he reigned twelve years and built Bamborough, which was at first enclosed by a hedge and afterwards by a wall. Ida was son of Eoppa, Eoppa of Esa, Esa of Ingui, Ingui of Angenwit, Angenwit of Aloc, Aloc of Benoc, Benoc of Brand, Brand of Bældæg, Bældæg of Woden, Woden of Freotholaf, Freotholaf of Freothowulf, Freothowulf of Finn, Finn of Godwulf, Godwulf of Geat.

552 [A]. Here Cynric fought against the Britons at the place which is called Searo-burg (Salisbury) and put the Britons to flight. Cerdic was Cynric's father: Cerdic was son of Elesa, Elesa of Esla, Esla of Gewis, Gewis of Wig, Wig of Freawin, Freawin of Frithogar, Frithogar of Brand, Brand of Bældæg, Bældæg of Woden.

552 [F]. Here Cynric fought against the Britons at the place which is called Salisbury, and Æthelbert, son of Eormenric, was born on the ... and in the ... year of his reign he received baptism, the first of the kings in Britain.

556 [A]. Here Cynric and Ceawlin fought against the Bntons at Beran-bury [Barbury].

560 [A]. Here Ceawlin succeeded to the kingdom among the West-Saxons, and Ida being dead Ælle succeeded to the kingdom of the Northumbrians,[8] each of whom reigned thirty-one winters. Ælle was son of Yffe, Yffe of Uxfrea, Uxfrea of Wilgisl, Wilgisl of Westerfalca, Westerfalca of Sæfugl, Sæfugl of Sæbald, Sæbald of Sige-geat, Sige-geat of Swebdæg, Swebdæg of Sige-gar, Sige-gar of Wæg-dæg, Wæg-dæg of Woden, Woden of Frithowulf.

565 [A]. Here Æthelbert succeeded to the kingdom of the Kentishmen and held it fifty-three winters. In his days Gregory sent us baptism;[9] and Columba mass-priest came to the Picts and converted them to Christ’s faith; they are dwellers by the northern mountains. And their king gave him the island which is called Iona; therein are five hides of land as men say. There Columba built a monastery and he was abbot there thirty-two winters and there he died when he was seventy-seven winters old. His heirs still have the place. The Southern Picts had been baptized long before; bishop Ninias, who had been instructed at Rome, had preached baptism to them, whose church and monastery is at Whitern, consecrated in the name of St. Martin; there he rests with many holy men. Now in Iona must ever be an abbot—not a bishop; and all the Scottish bishops must be subject to him because Columba was an abbot—not a bishop.[10]

568 [A]. Here Ceawlin and Cutha, Ceawlin’s brother, fought against Æthelbert and drove him into Kent: and they killed two aldormen at Wibbandun [Wimbledon], Oslaf and Cnebba.

571 [A]. Here Cuthwulf[11] fought against the Britons at Bedford and took four towns, Lenbury and Aylesbury and Bensington and Eynsham; and the same year he died.

577 [A]. Here Cuthwin and Ceawlin fought against the Britons, and they slew three kings, Coinmail and Condidan and Jarinmail, at a place which is called Deorham [Dyrham] and took three cities from them, Gloucester and Cirencester and Bath.

583 [A]. Here Mauricius succeeded to the realm of the Romans.

584 [A]. Here Ceawlin and Cutha fought against the, Britons at the place which is called Fethanleag [Faddiley] and Cutha was slain; and Ceawlin took many villages and spoils innumerable and in wrath returned thence to his own.

588 [A]. Here king Ælle died and Æthelric reigned after him five years.

591 [A]. Here Ceol reigned five[12] years.

592 [A]. Here was a great slaughter at Woddesbeorg (Wanborough) and Ceawlin was expelled and Gregory succeeded to the popedom in Rome.[13]

593 [A]. Here Ceawlin and Cwichelm and Crida perished; and Æthelfrith succeeded to the kingdom amongst the Northumbrians; [he was son of Æthelric, Æthelric of Ida].[14]

596 [E]. Hoc tempore monasterium sancti Benedicti a Longobardis destructum est. Here pope Gregory sent to Britain Augustin with very many monks who preached God's word to the people of the Angles.[15]

597 [A]. Here Ceolwulf began to reign amongst the West-Saxons; and he fought and won incessantly against either the race of the Angles or the Welsh or the Picts or the Scots. He was son of Cutha, Cutha of Cynric, Cynric of Cerdic, Cerdic of Elesa, Elesa of Esla, Esla of Gewis, Gewis of Wig, Wig of Freawin, Freawin of Frithugar, Frithugar of Brand, Brand of Bældæg, Bældæg of Woden.

Gomme’s Notes to the Fifth and Sixth CenturiesEdit

  1. Or Patrick—written above by a later band.
  2. MS. E.
  3. So MSS. B and C; cf. MS. E and F.
  4. W has Ægeles-ford, which = Aylesford.
  5. 456 E.
  6. As one flees fire.—F. Most vehemently.—E.
  7. MS. E.
  8. And held it thirty winters.—B, C.
  9. That was in the thirty-second year of his reign.—F.
  10. This annal—word for word identical with 565 E—is the addition of a later hand in A, whose original entry runs as follows: Here Columba presbyter came from the Scots to Britain in order to teach the Picts, and he built a monastery in the island of Iona.
  11. E has Cutha instead of Cuthwulf; and tacks on to the end of the annal—This Cutha was Ceawlin’s brother.
  12. Altered by later hand to six. “591 E. Here Ceolric reigned six years. Gregorius papa hic augmentavit in predicatione canonem: Diesque nostros in tua pace disponas.”
  13. 592 E. Here Gregory succeeded to the popedom in Rome. And this year was a great slaughter in Britain at Wodnesbeorg and Ceawlin was expelled.
  14. MS. E.
  15. Same entry—without the Latin sentence—in MS. 595 A, written on erasure; but probably all that the scribe has done is to transfer the entry from 596 to 595. B and C have it under 596. “ 597 F. Here came Augustin and his companions to England: plus minus centesimo quinquagesimo adventus Anglorumin Britannia.”

Royal Genealogies From Later Chronicle EntriesEdit

Gomme’s Translations of GenealogiesEdit

611 [A]. Here Cynegils succeeded to the kingdom amongst the West-Saxons and held it thirty-one winters: this Cynegils was son of Cedl, Ceol of Cutha, Cutha of Cynric.

626 [A]. Here Eanfled, daughter of king Edwin, was baptized on the holy eve of Pentecost (June 8th). And Penda had the kingdom for thirty winters; and he was fifty winters old when he succeeded to the kingdom. [Penda was son of Pybba, Pybba of Creoda, Creoda of Cynewald, Cynewald of Cnebba,[1] Cnebba of Icel, Icel of Eomær, Eomær of Angeltheow, Angeltheow of Offa, Offa of Wærmund, Wærmund of Wihtlæg, Wihtlæg of Woden.] 648 [A]. Here Cenwalh gave Cuthred[2] his kinsman three thousand [hides] of land near Ashdown; this Cuthred was son of Cwichelm, Cwichelm of Cynegils.

670 [A]. Here died Oswy king of the Northumbrians [on xv kal. Mar. (Feb. 15th)][3] and Egferth [his son][3]reigned after him. And Hlothere, nephew of bishop Ægelbert, succeeded to the bishopric over the West-Saxons, and held it seven years; bishop Theodore consecrated him. This Oswy was son of Æthelfrith, Æthelfrith of Æthelric, Æthelric of Ida, Ida of Eoppa.

674 [A]. Here Æscwin succeeded to the kingdom in Wessex; he was son of Cenfus, Cenfus of Cenferth, Cenferth of Cuthgils, Cuthgils of Ceolwulf, Ceolwulf of Cynric, Cynric of Cerdic.

676 [A]. Here Æscwin died and Hedda succeeded to the bishopric; and Centwin succeeded to the kingdom [of the West-Saxons].[4] And Centwin was son of Cynegils, Cynegils of Ceolwulf.

685 [A]. Here Ceadwalla began to strive for the kingdom. This Ceadwalla was son of Coenbert, Coenbert of Ceadda, Ceadda of Cutha, Cutha of Ceawlin, Ceawlin of Cynric, Cynric of Cerdic; and Mul was brother of Ceadwalla who was afterwards burnt in Kent.

685 [A]. And the same year king Egferth was slain: this Egferth was son of Oswy, Oswy of Æthelfrith, Æthelfrith of Æthelric, Æthelric of Ida, Ida of Eoppa.

694 [A]. And Wihtred succeeded to the kingdom of the Kentish-men and held it thirty-three[5] winters. This Wihtred was son of Egbert, Egbert of Ercenbert, Ercenbert of Eadbald, Eadbald of Æthelbert.

716 [A]. Then Æthelbald succeeded to the kingdom amongst the Mercians and held it forty-one winters; Æthelbald was son of Alwy, Alwy of Eawa, Eawa of Pybba whose kin is written above.[6]

728 [A]. And this year Æthelhard and Oswald atheling fought; and this Oswald was son of Æthelbald, Æthelbald of Cynebald, Cynebald of Cuthwin, Cuthwin of Ceawlin.

731 [A]. Here Osric king of the Northumbrians was slain, and Ceolwulf succeeded to the kingdom and held it eight years;[7] and this Ceolwulf was son of Cutha, Cutha of Cuthwin, Cuthwin of Leodwald, Leodwald of Egwald, Egwald of Aldhelm, Aldhelm of Ocga, Ocga of Ida, Ida of Eoppa. 738 [A]. Here Eadbert, son of Eata, Eata [being son] of Leodwald, succeeded to the kingdom of the Northumbrians and held it twenty-one winters. And his brother was archbishop Egbert, son of Eata; and they both rest in one chapel in the city of York.

748 [A]. Here Cynric atheling of the West-Saxons was slain; and Eadbert king of the Kentish-men died, [and Æthelbert son of king Wihtred succeeded to the kingdom.][8]

755 [A]. And the same year Offa [drove out Beornred and][3] succeeded to the kingdom and held it thirty-nine wmters; and his son Egferth held it a hundred and forty-one days. This Offa was son of Thingferth, Thingferth of Eanwulf, Eanwulf of Osmod, Osmod of Eawa, Eawa of Pybba, Pybba of Creoda, Creoda of Cynewald, Cynewald of Cnebba, Cnebba of Icel, Icel of Eomær, Eomær of Angeltheow, Angeltheow of Offa, Offa of Wærmund, Wærmund of Wihtlæg, Wihtlæg of Woden.

855 [A]. And this Æthelwulf was son of Egbert,[9] Egbert of Ealhmund, Ealhmund of Eafa, Eafa of Eoppa, Eoppa of Ingild: Ingild was brother of Ine king of the West-Saxons—he who fared to St. Peter’s and gave up his life there; they were sons of Coenred, Coenred of Ceolwald, Ceolwald of Cutha, Cutha of Cuthwin, Cuthwin of Ceawlin, Ceawlin of Cynric, Cynric of Cerdic,[10] Cerdic of Elesa, Elesa of Esia, Esla of Gewis, Gewis of Wig, Wig of Freawin, Freawin of Frithogar, Frithogar of Brand, Brand of Bældæg, Bældæg of Woden, Woden[11] of Frithowald, Frithowald of Freawin, Frealaf[12] of Frithowulf, Frithowulf of Finn, Finn of Godwulf, Godwulf of Geat, Geat of Tætwa, Tætwa of Beaw, Beaw of Sceldwea, Sceldwea of Heremod, Heremod of Itermon, Itermon of Hathra[13]—who was born in the ark: Noah, Lamech, Methuselah, Enoch, Jared, Malalahel, Kenan, Enosh, Seth, Adam, primus homo et pater noster est Christ, Amen.

Gomme’s Notes on the GenealogiesEdit

  1. Of Wybba, Wybba of Cryda, Cryda of Cynewald.—W.
  2. 648 E. Here Cenwalh gave Eadred, his kinsman, three thousand [hides] of land near Ashdown.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 E.
  4. E. super occidentales Anglos.—F Lat., with “Saxones” interlined.
  5. Twenty and three winters.—E.
  6. See 626 A.
  7. D places the death of Osric and accession Ceolwulf under 729 (as E and F) and again under 731 (as A, B, C).
  8. From a later hand in A.
  9. Here D interrupts pedigree to give succession of Æthelwulf’s sons, which he afterwards repeats in more correct form at end of annal. E follows in the main the earlier incorrect version of D.
  10. Cynric of Creoda, Creoda of Cerdic.—B, C, D.
  11. of Frealaf, Frealaf of Finn.—B, C, D.
  12. Sic MS. Freawin.—W.
  13. Hathra of Hwala, Hwala of Bedwig, Bedwig of Sceaf, that is filius Noe—who was born in the ark of Noah: Lamech, Methusalem, etc. (as in A).—B, C.

ReferencesEdit

Old English only:Edit

Old English and Modern English Translation:Edit

Modern English translation only:Edit

Separated VersionsEdit

  • Swanton, Michael (Trans. & ed.) (1996). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles. London: Dent. Revised and republished (2000) London: Phoenix.
  • Garmonsway, G. N. (Ed.) & Ingram, James (Trans.) & Giles, J. A. (Trans.) (1912). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. London: Everyman’s.

Collated VersionsEdit

Ad blocker interference detected!


Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.