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The Life of Hengist (Charts) is based on charts in Nellie Slayter Aurner’s Hengest: A Study in Early English Hero Legend, published in 1921. They provide an excellent visual comparison of what is told about Hengist in various medieval and early modern documents. Changes have been made here mainly to take account of newer editions of sources.

First SeriesEdit

First Series: Columns 1–7Edit

First Series, Columns 1–7
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
449—488
Bede
Eccl. Hist., Bk.
I Ch. XIV,XV,XVI
Historia Brittonum Æthelweard
Book I
William of Malmesbury
Book I, Ch.I
Henry of Huntington
Historia anglorum, Bk. II (c. 1154)
Form of Name Hengist Hengist Hengist Hengist Hengist Hengist
Genealogy Wiht­gils, Wit­ta, Vec­ta, Woden Vict­gil­sus, Vit­ta, Vec­ta, Vo­den Wiht­gils, Wit­ta, Vec­ta, Wo­den, Fri­thu­wald, Fri­thu­wulf, Finn, God­wulf, Geat Wyhr­tels, Wec­ta, Wit­har, Wo­den Great grand­son of Wodven Wict­gils, Wic­ta and Vec­ta, Wo­den, Frea­laf, Fre­dulf, Fin, Floc­wald, Je­ta
Religion Pagans Worshipped Wo­den—of­fered sac­ri­fi­ces for vic­tory Worshipped Wo­den—of­fered sac­ri­fi­ces for vic­tory
Tribe Not de­fin­ite; calls him lead­er of the for­ces; seems to imply Jute Saxon Britain called Anglia from its con­quer­ors—leaders H. and H. Angle (?)
Education
Military Service
Exile Exiled from Ger­many Implied
Settlement of Angl­ia
Adoption Marriage Mar­riage
Piratical Expeditions
With Hnæf
Finnsburg

First Series: Columns 8–13Edit

First Series, Columns 8–13
Geoffrey of Monmouth
Historia Regum Britanniae
Geoffrey Gaimar Wace
Roman de Brut (c. 1155)
Lawman
Brut (c. 1190)
Ralph de Diceto
(1190)
Ralph Higden
Polychronicon (1352)
Form of Name Hengist Hengis Hangist Hengest Hengistus Hengistus
Genealogy Great grand­son of Wo­den
Religion Worshipped Saturn and Jupiter but expe­cial­ly Mercury under name of Wo­den (Wo­dens­day) next to him god­dess Frea (Friday) As in Geoffrey. Wo­den and Freya As in Geoffrey ex­cept that remain­ing days of week are also ex­plained by their god’s name.
Tribe Saxon Seisne Saisne; Saxon Angle Saxon
Education
Military Service
Exile Exiled by lot to re­lieve coun­try. Hen­gist and Horsa lead­ers of band sent out Sent out by lot led by Mer­cury Lots every 15 years sent out every sixth man—H. and H. both vic­tims of the lot
Settlement of Angl­ia
Adoption Marriage
Piratical Expeditions
With Hnæf
Finnsburg

First Series: Columns 14–19Edit

First Series, Columns 14–19
Florence of Worcester
(1118)
Matthew of Paris
(c. 1253)
Walter of Coventry
(c. 1293)
John of Oxnead
(c. 1293)
Robert of Gloucester
(c. end of 13th Cent.)
Livre des reis de Britannie
(c. 1300)
Form of Name Hengst Hengistus Hengistus Hengist Hengist Hengist
Genealogy Wict­gis­li, Wi­tta, Wec­ta, Wo­den Wiht­gis­li, Wit­ha, Wet­ha, Wo­den “Of dukes kin”
Religion Woden—Frea Woden—Frie
Tribe Quotes Bede Saxon From Germany Saxoyne Sessoigne (Saxon)
Education
Military Service
Exile Driven out by lot as leaders of new colony
Settlement of Anglia
Adoption Marriage
Piratical Expeditions
With Hnæf
Finnsburg

First Series: Columns 20–25Edit

First Series, Columns 20–25
Pierre de Langtoft
(c. 1307)
Matthew of Westminster
(c. 1327)
Robert Manning of Brunne
(c. 1338)
Thomas of Malmesbury (?)
(c. 1366)
John of Fordun
(1385)
Richard of Cirencester
(c. 1400)
Form of Name Hengist Hengistus Hengist Hengistus Hengistus Hengistus
Genealogy With­gis­ii, Wit­ha, Wet­ha, Wo­den Wiht­gis­ius, Wit­tia, Wet­ha, Wo­den
Religion de la paenerye Woden—Frea Woden—Ffre Woden—Frea Woden and Frea
Tribe Germenye Saxoyne Saxon Saxon
Education
Military Service
Exile Banished by the rul­er of the land Exiled by lot for re­lief of coun­try Exiled by lot to re­lieve coun­try
Settlement of Angl­ia
Adoption Marriage
Piratical Expeditions
With Hnæf
Finnsburg

First Series: Columns 26–31Edit

First Series, Columns 26–31
Jehan de Waurin
(c. 1400)
Hector Boece
(1527)
Brut of
England

(c. 1479)
Histoire de Merlin
(c. 1300)
Arthour and Merlin
(c. 1330)
Henry Lovelich
Merlin (c. 1410)
Form of Name Englist Hungast Engist Engis Angys Haugwys, Augwys
Genealogy Son of a king Of great lineage among the Saxons He gath­ered folk of “Dan­mark and of Ses­soyne”
Religion Woden—Free Not Christ­ian “hethen Sarazin” Heathen
Tribe Saxon Saxonia Saxoyne Saxon King of Denmarke
Education
Military Service
Exile Sent out by lot Boldest and best of coun­try fit­ted out and sent forth to re­lieve pop­u­la­tion
Settlement of Angl­ia
Adoption Marriage
Piratical Expeditions
With Hnæf
Finnsburg

First Series: Columns 32–37Edit

First Series, Columns 32–37
Annals of the Picts Polydore Vergil
(1534)
Robert Fabyan
(1516)
Richard Grafton
(1501)
John Hardyng
(1543)
Raphael Holinshed
(1577)
Form of Name Hengistus Hengistus Hengistus Hengist Engish (Engyst) Hengist
Genealogy Ver­gis­tus, Vec­ta, Wo­den
Religion Gentiles of pa­gan law Heathen and Pa­gan law Paynems Wor­shipped Wo­ and Frea
Tribe Angle or Saxon Saxon Saxon Saxon Saxonye Saxon
Education
Military Service
Exile Sent from country by lot Sent out by lot to re­lieve coun­try Sent out by sort—duke of high re­nown Given as re­por­ted by some writ­ers
Settlement of Anglia
Adoption Marriage
Piratical Expeditions
With Hnæf
Finnsburg

First Series: Columns 38–43Edit

First Series, Columns 38–43
John Milton
History of Britain (1670)
Edmund Spenser
Faerie Queene (1590)
Michael Drayton
Poly-Olbion (1620)
Cornelius Kempius
(1588)
Supfidus Petrus
(1590)
Bernardus Furmerius
(1609)
Form of Name Hengist Hengist Hengist Engist Hengistus Hengist
Genealogy Descended in the fourth degree from Wo­den Ver­gist, Vit­ta, Vec­ta, Ve­den Son of U­dol­phus Ha­ron and Swana, daughter of Vet­gist, the Sax­on Sat­rap Son of U­dol­phus Ha­ron, adopted son of Ver­gist, his Sax­on fa­ther
Religion Pagan Pagan Pagan Pagan
Tribe Saxon Saxon Saxon Frisian Frisian Frisian
Education Sent to the em­per­or to be ed­u­cat­ed in his hall and trained in mil­i­tary discipline Sent to the court of Val­en­tin­ian to be trained in arms and let­ters
Military Service On his return, sent into Ang­ria to as­sist Yg­lo in war—gained great fame among neigh­bor­ing tribes—es­pe­cial­ly Sax­ons Served three years (380–383) Ca­rol­us Tax­an­der, Duke of Bra­bant—for a year with Yg­ro Las­seon of Ang­ria
Exile Banished ac­cord­ing to lot to re­lieve stress of over­pop­u­la­tion Doomed by the black lot to lead out a band of exiles
Settlement of Angl­ia Fleet di­rect­ed to Angl­ia, near­est to the Jutes—took pos­ses­sion of con­sid­er­a­ble land with­out dif­fi­culty Landed near river El­der in re­gion of Old Angl­ia—called set­tle­ment Fris­ia Mi­nor
Adoption Marriage Adopted by grand­fa­ther Ve­gist Married Ver­gis­ta, daugh­ter of the Sax­on sat­rap—was adop­ted by him
Piratical Expeditions Joined Ang­les and Sax­ons in sea raids Joined the Sax­ons in pir­at­i­cal raids
With Hnæf
Finnsburg

First Series: Columns 44–49Edit

First Series, Columns 44–49
Martinus Hamconius
(1625)
Ubbo Emmius
(1616)
Volperus Thaboritus
Beowulf
(ll. 1064–1169)
Finnsburg Fragment Bartholomew de Cotton
(c. 1298)
Form of Name Hengistus Engistus Hengistus Hengest Hengest Hengist (inserts a tran­script of Geof­frey in his first book)
Genealogy Son of U­dol­phus Ha­ron and Suana, daughter of Ver­gist Prefers to follow Bede Gives Bede’s account Wint­gils, Wen­ta, Wo­den
Religion Pagan Pagan
Tribe Frisian But thinks Hen­gist a Fris­ian since Sax­on was col­lec­tive Frisian
Education With the em­per­or Valen­tin­ian
Military Service With Duke of Bra­bant and Yg­lo Las­seon
Exile Sent by lot through cus­tom of an­ces­tors to lead forth a band
Settlement of Anglia First went to ma­ter­nal grand­fa­ther in Old Angl­ia near the Jutes
Adoption Marriage Adopted by Vergist
Piratical Expeditions
With Hnæf H. is called thane of the prince—be­cause lead­er at death of Hnæf Clearly implied
Finnsburg Describes fight—com­pact between Finn and H.—the wint­er to­geth­er—the ven­geance upon Finn Fight vividly de­scribed but in­com­plete—no re­fer­ence to wint­er fol­low­ing

Second SeriesEdit

Second Series: Columns 1–7Edit

Second Series, Columns 1–7
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
449—488
Bede
Eccl. Hist., Bk.
I Ch. XIV,XV,XVI
Historia Brittonum Æthelweard
Book I
William of Malmesbury
Book I, Ch.I
Henry of Huntington
Historia anglorum, Bk. II (c. 1154)
Arrival in Britain Landed at Wip­pids­fleet, 449 449—arrived in three ships Arrived in 447—re­ceived as friends by Vor­ti­gern Landed at Wip­pids­fleet with three ves­sels Arrived in three long ves­sels called ceols Came in three long­ships—set­tled in the east­ern part of is­land
Reason Invited by Vor­ti­gern Invited by Vor­ti­gern Exiled from Ger­many Invited by Vur­thern Formal re­quest by Am­bas­sa­dors Invited by Vor­ti­gern
Compact with Vor­ti­gern Vor­ti­gern gave land in S. E. of coun­try—they to fight Picts Given land in East­ern part of island in return for mil­i­tary ser­vice Vortigern gave isle of Than­et and pro­mised pro­vis­ions in re­turn for help Support and hon­ors in re­turn for help Isle of Than­et giv­en—sup­port pro­mised in re­turn for ser­vice As above
First battle They fought the Picts and had the vic­tory where­so­ever they came Engaged en­e­my from north and gained vic­tory Fought against Scots—re­mained mas­ters of field—King hon­ored them with tri­umph Scots ad­vanced—An­gles de­feat­ed them—cav­al­ry pur­sued and de­stroyed fu­gi­tives At Stam­ford in Lin­coln­shire, North­ern­ers fought with darts and spears, Sax­ons with bat­tle ax­es and long­swords—Sax­ons gained vic­tory
Reinforcements from mainland They sent to An­gles—told them worth­less­ness of Brit­ons and excel­lence of land—men came from three tribes News of suc­cess, fer­til­ity of is­land, and cow­ard­ice of Brit­ons brought a large fleet. Hengist with Vor­ti­gern’s con­sent sum­moned 16 ves­sels of armed war­riors to as­sist him; brought Ro­wena A large fleet and army of their coun­try­men joined, them hear­ing of their suc­cess Hengist, with Vor­ti­gern’s ad­vice, sent for country­men—they came with 16 ves­sels, bring­ing Ro­wena A larger fleet with a great­er body of men came over
Tribes who came with settle­ments made Old Sax­ons (Es­ex, Sus­sex, Wes­sex); An­gles (East A., Mid­dle A., Mer­cia—North­men); Jutes (Kent, Wight) Sax­ons, An­gles, Jutes; (Angl­ia now desert between Sax­ons and Jutes) Bk. V, Ch. IX, else­where gives Fres­ones, Rug­li, Dani, Hun­ni, Angli, Sax­oni, Bo­ruc­tu­arii From every pro­vince in Ger­many As in Bede
Thongcastle
Rowena exchanged for Kent Vor­ti­gern at ban­quet in­fatu­ated prom­ised to give what was asked for Ro­wena to the half of his king­dom. Hen­gist asked and re­ceived Kent As in the Hist. Brit.

Second Series: Columns 8–13Edit

Second Series, Columns 8–13
Geoffrey of Monmouth
Historia Regum Britanniae
Geoffrey Gaimar Wace
Roman de Brut (c. 1155)
Lawman
Brut (c. 1190)
Ralph de Diceto
(1190)
Ralph Higden
Polychronicon (1352)
Arrival in Brit­ain There ar­rived (by chance) in Kent 3 bri­gan­dines or long gal­leys full of armed men—re­ceived peace­ably by Vor­ti­gern 3 gal­leys brought a strange people to land 3 ships with 300 men landed in the Thames were summoned to Vor­ti­gern’s court at Can­ter­bury As in Bede As in Bede
Reason Exiled by lot to re­lieve over-pop­u­la­tion (full de­tails); came to of­fer ser­vice Exiled—led by Mer­cury to Brit­ain Exile—to seek new land As in Bede As in Bede
Compact with Vor­ti­gern Lands and pos­ses­sions in re­turn for ser­vice As in Geoffrey Reward and honor in re­turn for ser­vice Quotes Bede Quotes Bede
First battle Saxons joined Brit­ons to re­pel Picts—Sax­ons fought brave­ly—put en­e­my to flight Saxons and Brit­ons met Picts at Hum­ber—Sax­ons won vic­tory and rich re­wards from Vor­ti­gern Saxons had over­come Picts by noon—Picts fled all day Quotes Henry of Hunt­ing­don
Reinforcements from main­land Hengist sent for large bod­ies of his coun­try­men to pro­tect king—18 ships came full of best sol­diers—also brought Ren­wein one of the most accom­plished beau­ties of the age As in Geoffrey As in Geoffrey–Hen­gest’s men ar­rived with 1500 riders, much of Hen­gest’s kin and Ro­wenne, Hen­gest’s daugh­ter Quotes Bede
Tribes who came with settle­ments made Quotes Bede Quotes Bede
Thongcastle Hengist asked for a city or town to give him suit­able rank. Vor­ti­gern re­fused be­cause of Hen­gist’s re­li­gion—Hen­gist asked for ground that could be en­circ­led by thong for a fort­ress—grant­ed—cut up bulls­hide and built thong-castle, later Lan­caster Same trick as in Geof­frey—he called the place Van­cas­ter—later Lan­cas­ter As in Geof­frey but with many ad­di­tion­al de­tails. Brit­ish name: Kaer-Car­rei; Eng­lish name: Thong­ches­ter; Dan­ish name: Lan­cas­tel Quotes Geoffrey
Rowena exchanged for Kent Hengist in­vit­ed Vor­ti­gern to see his new cas­tle, en­ter­tained him at ban­quet. Ren­wein as cup­bear­er fas­cin­at­ed King—Vor­ti­gern in spite of his re­li­gion mar­ried her giv­ing Hen­gist king­dom of Kent in re­turn Incident as in Geof­frey, but with more de­scrip­tion and de­tail Hengest invited Vor­ti­gern to view cas­tle and pre­pared ban­quet as in Geoffrey Quotes Wil­liam of Malmes­bury

Second Series: Columns 14–19Edit

Second Series, Columns 14–19
Florence of Worcester
(1118)
Matthew of Paris
(c. 1253)
Walter of Coventry
(c. 1293)
John of Oxnead
(c. 1293)
Robert of Gloucester
(c. end of 13th Cent.)
Livre des reis de Britannie
(c. 1300)
Arrival in Britain As in Bede Came 449 in 3 long ships Came in the time of Vor­ti­gern Came in 449 Landed in Kent with 3 ships full of knights 442 came in 3 long ships
Reason As in Bede Invited by Vortigern As if to de­fend, but in real­i­ty to fight and con­quer Brit­ain Sent for by Brit­ons
Compact with Vor­ti­gern Given land and sti­pend in return for mil­i­tary ser­vice Helped the king against Picts and Scots Vortigern of­fered rich­es and lands for vic­tory over foes Implied
First battle Saxons put to flight Scots and Picts Saxons put enemy to flight Delivered Brit­ons from their en­e­mies well e­nough
Reinforce­ments from main­land 18 ships full of chos­en war­riors came–also Rou­wen 18 ships and Row­en came at Hen­gist’s sum­mons Quotes Bede
Tribes who came with settle­ments made As in Bede Sessoine, Eng­le, Wite
Thongcastle Hengist built Thwong or Tan­geast­re
Rowena exchanged for Kent Vortigern married Ron­wen Gave his daugh­ter to the king As in Geoffrey Vortigern gave Hen­gist Kent to his shame and took to wife Hen­gist’s daugh­ter

Second Series: Columns 20–25Edit

Second Series, Columns 20–25
Pierre de Langtoft
(c. 1307)
Matthew of Westminster
(c. 1327)
Robert Manning of Brunne
(c. 1338)
Thomas of Malmesbury (?)
(c. 1366)
John of Fordun
(1385)
Richard of Cirencester
(c. 1400)
Arrival in Britain Arrived in 3 ships with armed chev­a­liers Came 449 en­tered Brit­ain in 3 long ships 3 ship­loads of men land­ed at Sand­wich Came (449) and 3 keels filled with armed men As in Bede Cane with 3 long ships
Reason Need of new home Invited by Vor­ti­gern Sent by their gods to find new land By chance Bede Invited by Vor­ti­gern
Compact with Vor­ti­gern Hengist fights for V.—is giv­en land Fought in return for land and money V. prom­ised rich gifts in re­turn for ser­vice Aided Vor­ti­gern—gained vic­tory—giv­en much land in Linde­sey As in Geoffrey To fight in re­turn for pay
First battle Pa­gans put the Scots to rout Sax­ons re­pelled at­tack of Scots and Picts Pagans fought so bold­ly that they were vic­tor­i­ous Geoffrey Superior wea­pons of Sax­ons de­feat­ed foe—Hen­gist was giv­en lands in Linde­sey
Reinforce­ments from main­land After tow­er is built 18 ships, knights and Ro­wenne came from Ger­many 16 ships came af­ter cas­tle was fin­ished—Rone­wen (whom ig­nor­ant peo­ple called In­ge) H. called from con­ti­nent—18 ships full of chos­en sol­dies with his daugh­ter Ron­wen Summarizes Geof­frey brief­ly 18 ships with chos­en war­riors—al­so Hen­gist’s daugh­ter Rom­wen
Tribes who came with settle­ments made As in Bede As in Bede
Thongcastle By craft Hen­gist ob­tained right to build Taun­cas­tre Thong cas­tle called by French­men “Cas­tle de Cor­rey”—Brit­ons, “Kair Karre” Built (by trick) Twon—cas—tre, lat­er Lan­cas­tre Constructed Twang­cas­tre (sum­mary of tale)
Rowena exchanged for Kent Vortigern in­fat­u­at­ed mar­ried Ro­wanne–gave Hen­gist whole of Kent Hengist gave R. to V. and was giv­en Kent Brief men­tion that Vor­ti­gern mar­ried Ro­wen, daugh­ter of Hen­gist No mention of ban­quet—Vor­ti­gern mar­ried Ron­wen be­cause of her beau­ty

Second Series: Columns 26–31Edit

Second Series, Columns 26–31
Jehan de Waurin
(c. 1400)
Hector Boece
(1527)
Brut of
England

(c. 1479)
Histoire de Merlin
(c. 1300)
Arthour and Merlin
(c. 1330)
Henry Lovelich
Merlin (c. 1410)
Arrival in Britain Came in 3 small ships—land­ed at Sau­rius (Ebbs­fleet Came with 30 ships and 10,000 war­riors A great navy of stran­ers ar­rived in Kent Engis came to Vor­ti­ger Invaded Brit­ain with army of 10,000 men Cane to For­ta­ger
Reason Seeking set­tle­ment/small> Invited by Vor­ti­gern To seek ser­vice Invited to help Vor­ti­ger News of Constan’s death and suc­ces­sion of his monk­ish son Moyne
Compact with Vor­ti­gern V. prom­ised land and sti­pend—H. prom­ised sup­port To free Brit­ain from Scots and Picts in re­turn for re­ward Lands in re­turn for de­li­er­ing the coun­try of en­e­mies Hen­gest had for­mer­ly at­temp­te an in­va­sion and been driv­en back bby Con­stans Served F. long and well till his strife was ended
First battle Saxon dis­com­fit­ed Scots and Picts Much space giv­en to bat­tles—care­ful ex­pla­na­tions why Sax­ons were vic­tors–valor of Scots and Picts em­ph­sized
Reinforce­ments from main­land H. sent for a large num­ber of sol­diers and his daugh­ter Ron­nixa H. convinced V. that help must be called from Ger­many—great num­bers came—wife and daugh­ter Rox­sand
Tribes who came with settle­ments made
Thongcastle Built on a lofty rock Con­roye—Bri­ish Kaer­cordy H. giv­en land called Lon­di­sia near York by the Hum­ber–al­so “Thu­ryn cas­tle” Engist asked city—re­fused­asked land that could be cov­ered with thong—built “Thonge­cas­tel
Rowena exchanged for Kent V. en­a­mored gave Kent (with­out con­sult­ing its own­er) to mar­ry Ro­nixa V. gave Kent to H. on wed­ding R. (H. had been placed in the north) Ronewenne of­fered cup (as in Geof­frey)—ex­changed for Kent Angis spoke to the king so that he took one of An­gis’ daugh­ters for his wife Fortager mar­mied daugher of An­gis—no ter­ri­tory yield­ed Angwys gave his daugh­ter to For­ta­ger as wife—Brit­ons an­gered be­cause of her re­li­gion

Second Series: Columns 32–37Edit

Second Series, Columns 32–37
Annals of the Picts Polydore Vergil
(1534)
Robert Fabyan
(1516)
Richard Grafton
(1501)
John Hardyng
(1543)
Raphael Holinshed
(1577)
Arrival in Brit­ain Came in three long ships Arrived in res­ponse to inv­i­ta­tion—(al­ter­na­tive) sent forth to re­lieve count­ry Gives variant ver­sions of Bede and Geof­frey 3 tall ships full of armed men landed at the Isle of Ten­et (Bede and Wil­liam also quot­ed) Came with three ships Certain ves­sels came—were cour­teous­ly re­ceived
Reason Invited by the king Invited by chance Gives exile by lot and in­vi­ta­tion Chance brought them to Brit­ain—in search of ser­vice Had no “hab­i­ta­cyon” Invited (some say chance)
Compact with Vortigern Given Kent for dwel­ling place in re­turn for their help Reward for ser­vice Wages for ser­vice Maintained in a cas­tle in re­turn for sav­ing Brit­ons from en­e­mies Reward and land for aid
First battle Contest with en­e­mies from north—won vic­tory Put to flight the e­n­emy Saxons beat down the e­ne­my and de­fend­ed the land Same as Fabyan Fought full might­i­ly against P. and S.—drove them out Immediately led against Picts and Scots—over­came them
Reinforce­ments from main­land Hengistus sent for large bod­ies of men—for­ti­fied and en­larged his bound­ar­ies (Given as com­ing after build­ing of Thong­cas­tle.) Sent for by H., came (16 sails) with Ro­no­wen Same as Fabyan 18 ships came “well stuffed of men”—also daugh­ter Ro­wan Defended and en­larged his ter­ri­tory—sent for large num­bers of coun­try­men
Tribes who came with set­tle­ments made Saxons, Vites, and Eng­lishe­menne (Bede) As in Bede Quotes Bede Quotes Bede
Thongcastle Asked land he could cover with hide—built Thong­cas­tle in coun­try of Lind­sey Same as Fabyan Gained cas­tle with thong of bull’s skin in “Lynd­sey”
Rowena exchanged for Kent Infatuation of king at ban­quet made king di­vorce his wife and mar­ry Ro­nix As in Geoffrey As in Geoffrey Banquet and mar­riage re­lat­ed—Vor­ti­ger “set the Sax­ons above” and al­i­en­at­ed his peo­ple and his sons As in Geoffrey

Second Series: Columns 38–43Edit

Second Series, Columns 38–43
John Milton
History of Britain (1670)
Edmund Spenser
Faerie Queene (1590)
Michael Drayton
Poly-Olbion (1620)
Cornelius Kempius
(1588)
Supfidus Petrus
(1590)
Bernardus Furmerius
(1609)
Arrival in Brit­ain Arrived in 3 long galleys or kyles Arrived in 3 hoys of Sax­ons Came to Britain Landed with 3 long ships and a great mul­ti­tude of Fris­ians Called to Brit­ain to help Vor­t­igern Happened with three keels to land in Kent
Reason Invited (also gives Hist. Brit. version) Called by Brit­ons to aid Invited by Vor­ti­gern Invited Vor­ti­gern, at Can­ter­bury, sent en­quir­ies and of­fered homes and re­ward if they would fight for him
Compact with Vortigern Land and gifts for ser­vice Employed by V. for his safe­ty Hired to repel the Picts Stipend given for fight­ing Reward for ser­vice
First battle Met and de­feat­ed Scots and Picts Drove out the in­vad­ing Pict Freed king from en­e­mies Not long after ar­riv­al, they met the en­e­my and drove them from the coun­try
Reinforce­ments from main­land H. invited oth­ers who came with 17 ships bring­ing Ro­wen The Saxons grew great and forced Vor­ti­gern out of his king­dom H. persuaded king to send for more war­riors—11 ships came with H.’s wife, his son Ocho, his daugh­ter, and very many friends—later 40 ships ar­rived H. called more for­ces from the fa­ther­land and neigh­bor­ing re­gions
Tribes who came with set­tle­ments made Quotes Bede To the Saxons the Angles and Jutes came as aid Angles, Sax­ons, Jutes, and Fris­ians
Thongcastle As in Geoffrey H. asked land of the king and built a tow­er safe­ty of him­self and fam­i­ly
Renwein exchanged for Kent Account as in Geof­rey without was­sail in­ci­dent H. (after break with Bri­tons) pre­tends sor­row for past deeds and is re­ceived to grace through his fair daugh­ter King invited to view tow­er—at feast Ro­wen­na ac­cord­ing to Fris­ian cus­tom bore bowl to king, knelt, etc., as above

Second Series: Columns 44–49Edit

Second Series, Columns 44–49
Martinus Hamconius
(1625)
Ubbo Emmius
(1616)
Volperus Thaboritus
Beowulf
(ll. 1064–1169)
Finnsburg Fragment Bartholomew de Cotton
(c. 1298)
Arrival in Britain Called by Vortigern into ser­vice in Brit­ain Engist led a strong band into Brit­ain Gives Bede’s account in Ch. VII; in Ch. VIII, says he was driv­en into ex­ile (Hist. Brit.)
Reason Invited. Invited by Britons Invited by Vol­tin­gran­no (or Vur­ti­gurn)
Compact with Vortigern To serve for re­ward To serve against en­e­mies Given Thanet for aid
First battle Drove out Picts and Scots Won victory over Picts and Scots
Reinforcements from main­land A much greater force than the first both of men and wo­men came as if to set­tle rath­er than to fight With consent of King set to Fris­ia and collected Fris­ians in mul­ti­tude; also wife and son Oc­ha and daughter
Tribes who came with settle­ments made
Thongcastle Banquet and in­fa­tu­a­tion de­scribed—east­ern part of Brit­ain for H.’s daugh­ter
Rowena exchanged for Kent

Third SeriesEdit

Third Series: Columns 1–7Edit

Third Series, Columns 1–7
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
449—488
Bede
Eccl. Hist., Bk.
I Ch. XIV,XV,XVI
Historia Brittonum Æthelweard
Book I
William of Malmesbury
Book I, Ch.I
Henry of Huntington
Historia anglorum, Bk. II (c. 1154)
Wassail incident
Summoning of Oisc and Ebissa Hengist with Vor­ti­gern’s con­sent sum­moned his son Oc­ta and E­bis­sa, “fra­tu­e­lo su­o.” They set­tled and held land be­tween Eng­land and Scot­land Hengest send for his son and bro­ther (not named)—they set­tled in North­um­bria
Crowning of Vortimer
Break between Hen­gist and Brit­ons Entered into league with Picts and turned against Bri­tons—plun­dered, des­troyed church­es, took pos­ses—sion of coun­try Britons grew un­able to fill agree­ment—tried to dis­miss Sax­on (be­fore call­ing of Oc­ta and E­bis­sa). Sax­ons con­tin­ual­ly re­ceived re­in­force­ments They demand sti­pend—Bri­tons re­fuse—they take up arms­drive Bri­tons out and take pos­ses­sion of is­land At sug­ges­tion of Vortimer Bri­tons broke truce Sax­ons to force pay­ment of sup­port formed and al­li­ance with Picts and drove Bri­tish from is­land to woods and shel­ter
Battles (473) Hengist and Æsc fought Welsh—took spoils; Welsh fled Horsa slain by the Bri­tons in battle; was buried in Kent where a mon­u­ment bear­ing his name still stands (1) Vor­ti­mer fought Hen­gist and Horsa, drove them to the isle of Than­et, and be­sieged them. (4) Fin­ally near the stone by the Gall­ic sea, Sax­ons de­feated, fled to ships (473) Hengist and Æsc gained vic­tory over Bri­tons—im­mense spoils First (not named) resulted in a draw; Horsa and Ka­ti­gis fell; An­gles gained other 3 bat­tles Says Gor­ti­mer fought 3 bat­tles af­ter Ayles­ford and drove Sax­ons to their ships (Sec. 33)
At Aylesford Hengist and Hor­sa against Vor­ti­gern—Hor­sa slain, Hen­gist and Æsc ob­tain king­dom, 455 Hengist and Hor­sa fought against Vor­ti­gern. Hor­sa was killed. Hen­gist ob­tained king­dom (455) Gortimer and Ca­ti­ger, gen­er­als un­der Am­bro­si­us, made war against Hen­gist and Hor­sa at Æil­les­trau in 455
At Crayford Hengist and Æsc slew 4 troops of Bri­tons (456); (457) slew 4000 Bri­tons (457) Hengest and Æsc put Bri­tons to flight H. and Esc fought Bri­tish led by chief (many details)—Bri­tish fled; H. and Esc ruled Kent

Third Series: Columns 8–13Edit

Third Series, Columns 8–13
Geoffrey of Monmouth
Historia Regum Britanniae
Geoffrey Gaimar Wace
Roman de Brut (c. 1155)
Lawman
Brut (c. 1190)
Ralph de Diceto
(1190)
Ralph Higden
Polychronicon (1352)
Wassail incident Renwein ap­proached king with wine cup—made low courtesy—said “Lauerd king, wacht heil.” Instructed by interpreter, king replied, “Drinc heil.” She drank­he kissed her and drank rest—From that time this has been an Eng­lish custom As in Geoffrey but sa­lu­ta­tion not ex­act: Was­hael—Drink­hael “Waes hail,” “Drinc hail”; a cus­tom of Sax­land–since then of Eng­land
Summoning of Oisc and Ebissa Octa and his bro­ther E­bis­sa were giv­en north Bri­tain by the wall—Oc­ta, E­bis­sa, and Cher­dich res­pond­ed to sum­mons with 300 ships filled with sol­diers Hengist sent mess­ages to his son and (cous­in-ne­phew) who came with 300 galleys—many oth­er ves­sels fol­lowed from time to time Hengest’s sons Octa and Octa’s wed-brother E­bis­sa came, Octa with 300 and E­bis­sa with 150 ships—many fol­lowed
Crowning of Vortimer The Britons ter­ri­fied by the num­ber of Sax­ons, de­sert­ed Vor­ti­gern and made his son Vor­ti­mer king Britons ter­ri­fied at num­bers of Sax­ons un­able to get help from Vor­ti­gern chose Vor­ti­mer as king Britons turned against Vor­ti­gern and chose Vor­ti­mer to help them drive out the heathen As in Geoffrey As in Geoffrey
Break between Hen­gist and Brit­ons Vortimer led Bri­tons in at­tempt to drive bar­bar­ians from their coun­try Vortimer de­fied Sax­ons, and waged bit­ter war against them Vortimer ral­lied the Chris­tians against the heath­en—Vor­ti­ger stayed with Hen­gist Quotes Wil­liam, Geof­frey, Hen­ry, and Bede
Battles Fought 4 bat­tles, 3rd upon sea-shore—drove Sax­ons to ships—be­sieged them on Isle of Than­et—Sax­ons stole away leav­ing wo­men and child­ren Four times Vor­ti­mer van­quished his foe. 3rd bat­tle on sea-shore in Kent (4) be­sieged in Than­et After Hengest’s flight he turned and fought Vor­ti­mer on the sea-shore in Kent. 5000 of his forces were slain General state­ment that Sax­ons were not able to stand against Brit­ons under Vor­ti­mer Quotes Wil­liam, Geof­frey, Hen­ry, and Bede
At Aylesford Second battle near Ayles­ford. Here Vor­ti­gern and Hor­sa killed each other Quotes Wil­liam, Geof­frey, Hen­ry, and Bede
At Crayford Quotes Wil­liam, Geof­frey, Hen­ry, and Bede

Third Series: Columns 14–19Edit

Third Series, Columns 14–19
Florence of Worcester
(1118)
Matthew of Paris
(c. 1253)
Walter of Coventry
(c. 1293)
John of Oxnead
(c. 1293)
Robert of Gloucester
(c. end of 13th Cent.)
Livre des reis de Britannie
(c. 1300)
Wassail incident Louerd king, wes­heil—Drinc heil Louerd king, was­hayl—Drink hail Waisseyl Drinc­heil
Summoning of Oisc and E­bis­sa Octa, A­biss­a, and Cer­dic came with 300 ships fully armed Octo and E­bysse came with 300 ships
Crowning of Vortimer Vortigern was de­posed and Vor­ti­mer crowned 454 At the teaching of St. Ger­man­us peo­ple turned against Vor­ti­gern and crowned Vor­ti­mer
Break between Hengist and Britons Vortimer began to ex­pel the bar­bar­ians Through coun­sel of S. Ger­main Vor­ti­mer un­der­took to drive out pa­gans
Battles (473) As in Æ­thel­weard Fought 4 battles in 1 year
At Aylesford Hengest and Hors fought against Wur­ti­gearn—Hors was killed but Hen­gist had vic­tory and reigned with his son Æse (455) At Ailes­tory pa­gans were de­feat­ed by Vor­ti­mer
At Crayford (457) H. and A. fought Brit­ish—slew 4000—put rest to flight—they fled from Kent to Lon­don Not long after Hor­sus killed Ka­ti­gern, then Vor­ti­mer killed Hor­sus—Hen­gist be­came king of Kent

Third Series: Columns 20–25Edit

Third Series, Columns 20–25
Pierre de Langtoft
(c. 1307)
Matthew of Westminster
(c. 1327)
Robert Manning of Brunne
(c. 1338)
Thomas of Malmesbury (?)
(c. 1366)
John of Fordun
(1385)
Richard of Cirencester
(c. 1400)
Wassail incident Sir, wes­sail, Drink­hayl Was­hayl, my lord, was­sail—drynk hayl Lauerd kyng was­sail—Drink hail-that cus­tom is still in use
Summoning of Oisc and Ebissa Octa, Dissa, Ger­dy­ker; 300 ships sent for Summoned Occa, A­bys­sa and Cer­dic­ius with 300 ships Octa, Eb­sa and Ker­dyk sum­moned with 30 ships—after that came smaller groups Octa, Eb­is­sa and Cher­dich sec­ret­ly sum­moned by H. to help against Vor­ti­mer—came with 300 ships Hengistus calls Oc­tave and his son E­bas­sum af­ter the death of Vor­ti­gern to aid him against Au­re­li­us Octa, Abissa, and Cer­ic­ius with 300 ships, armed in full
Crowning of Vortimer People fear­ing pagans crowned Vor­ti­mer People deposed Vor­ti­gern and crowned Vor­ti­mer Britons made Vor­ti­mer king in order to drive out Sax­ons People deposed Vor­ti­gern be­cause of his mar­riage with Ron­wen—crowned Vor­ti­mer Vortimer was made king, his fath­er still liv­ing Britons de­posed Vor­ti­gern, raised Vor­ti­mer to throne
Break between Hengist and Britons






(A large sec­tion ap­pears to have been missed—tale pas­ses from Vor­ti­mer’s crown­ing to his death)
Vortimer made war upon An­gles Vortimer hunt­ed the Sax­ons as a hound does the hare Vortimer at­tempt­ed to drive out Hen­gist Vortimer under­took to ex­pel the Sax­ons
Battles 4 times the Brit­ons beat the Sax­ons in battle (3rd battle was on the sea-shore, the 4th in Can­cia where in put all to flight) As in Geof­frey
At Aylesford Met Saxons at Ailles­pord and de­feated them. Soon af­ter in bat­tle Hor­sa killed Ka­ti­gern and Vor­ti­mer slew Ho­sa—put Hen­gist to flight

(3) In Kent–Sax­ons fled to “Yle of Than­et”; (4) in Isle of Than­et–Sax­ons fled to Ger­many
Vortimer in second battle at Aille­pord over­came a vast multi­tude
At Crayford Not long after a great bat­tle was fought in which Ka­ti­gern and Hor­sa were killed

Third Series: Columns 26–31Edit

Third Series, Columns 26–31
Jehan de Waurin
(c. 1400)
Hector Boece
(1527)
Brut of
England

(c. 1479)
Histoire de Merlin
(c. 1300)
Arthour and Merlin
(c. 1330)
Henry Lovelich
Merlin (c. 1410)
Wassail incident Verd Cing, Weis­seil–drinquail “Whatsaile;”“Drinks­haile”—intro­duced cus­tom in Eng­land “It was she who brought the word was­sail to this king­dom”—ref­er­ence to in­cid­ent as told in oth­er ver­sions
Summoning of Oisc and Ebissa Cocta and 300 ships called to in­crease pow­er against Scots and Picts Occa sent for—came with 10,000 men
Crowning of Vortimer Norcimer chosen to free land of pa­gans Bishop of Lon­don slain by Oc­ca for re­prov­ing Vor­ti­gern’s mar­riage with R. Brit­ons re­volt­ed from Vor­ti­gern, crowned Vor­ti­mer Britons in­censed at Vor­ti­gern’s mar­riage chose Vor­ty­mer king
Break between Hengist and Britons He impetuously at­tacked and slew Sax­ons Vortimer made al­li­ance with Scots and Picts against H. Britons tried to drive out Sax­ons—fought 3 battles The Danes that Vor­ti­ger had brought warred sore against the Chris­tians Portager made war against Hen­gest so suc­cess­fully that H. prom­ised ne­ver to in­vade Brit­ain again and em­barked for Ger­many
Battles Fought 4 nob­le bat­tles Vor­ti­mer with help of the Scots re­stores Chris­tianity—sum­mons St. Ger­man­us and St. Lup­us 1st in Kent, 2nd at Te­te­ford, 3rd Cat­ta­gren and Horn killed each other. Vor­ty­mer des­troyed “Horn­cas­tle” in Kent and drove Sax­ons out of land
At Aylesford
At Crayford

Third Series: Columns 32–37Edit

Second Series, Columns 32–37
Annals of the Picts Polydore Vergil
(1534)
Robert Fabyan
(1516)
Richard Grafton
(1501)
John Hardyng
(1543)
Raphael Holinshed
(1577)
Wassail incident Wassayle–Drynke­hayll Wassayle–Drynke­hayll Wassayle–Drynke hayle Wassail Drinke halle
Summoning of Oisc and Ebissa Hengistus in­vit­ed Och­ta and A­bi­sa (son and his bro­ther-in-law) with 40 keels Vortiger sent for Oc­ta the son of Hen­gist as ad­di­tion­al help Same as Fabyan Hengist sent for Oc­ca, E­bis­sa, and Cher­dryk—they bought 300 ships of war­riors H. sent for this bro­ther Oc­ca and his son E­ub­sa
Crowning Vortimer After Vor­ti­ger’s death Vor­ti­mer suc­ceed­ed Brit­ons find­ing that Vor­ti­ger was turn­ing coun­try over to Sax­ons de­posed him and crowned Vor­ti­mer Same as Fabyan Peo­ple ter­fi­fied—crowned Vor­ti­mer As in Fabyan
Break between Hengist and Britons Suddenly mak­ing league with Picts, they turned against Brit­ons. St. Ger­man­us helped Brit­ish Al­le­lu­jah chor­us Polydore quotes many writ­ers here–with vary­ing ac­counts­—Gil­das, Bede, Paul­us Di­con­nus Vortimer pur­sued Sax­ons Same as Fabyan Vortimer fought Sax­ons “at all places where he went” Great num­ber of Sax­ons ter­ri­fied Brit­ons—­or­tim­er made war on Sax­ons
Battles Saxons leagued with Scots, Picts made war against Vor­ti­men­con­quered Brit­ons 3rd bat­tle by sea­side fourth bat­tle Cool Moore; oth­er bat­tles drove Sax­ons to state of siege in Isle of Than­et Same as Fabyan As in Fabyan
At Aylesford
At Crayford Aurelius (af­ter burn­ing ­Vor­ti­gern’s tow­er) fought H. and Oc­ta—won victory and drove him back in­to Kent Same as Fabyan

Third Series: Columns 38–43Edit

Third Series, Columns 38–43
John Milton
History of Britain (1670)
Edmund Spenser
Faerie Queene (1590)
Michael Drayton
Poly-Olbion (1620)
Cornelius Kempius
(1588)
Supfidus Petrus
(1590)
Bernardus Furmerius
(1609)
Wassail incident Wacht Heil—Drinkt Heil
Summoning of Oisc and Ebissa H. gained con­sent of V. to send for Oc­ta and E­bis­sa, his own and his brother’s son Ochta and E­bis­a bro­thers, had come with Hen­gist his grand­sons—others call them sons of Hen­gist
Crowning of Vortimer The people fear­ing the en­croach­ment of H. and his fol­low­ers de­posed Vor­ti­gern and set up Vor­ti­mer
Break between Hengist and Britons Saxons complain that they are not paid for ser­vice—Guor­ti­mer at head of Brit­ons tries to drive them out By the help of his son, Vor­ti­mer, ­Vor­ti­ger regains his king­dom Saxons mas­ter­ing the field drove the Brit­ons beyond the Sev­erne into Wales and Corn­wall Vortimer, son of Vor­ti­gern’s first wife, in­dig­nant at mar­riage with Ro­wena, waged war against H. in which Hor­sa fell Vortimer pro­ceed­ed to drive out the for­eign­ers
Battles In 2nd bat­tle Vor­ti­mer’s bro­ther fell; in 3rd he drove Fris­ians to ships
At Aylesford A. S. Chronicle
At Crayford A. S. Chronicle

Third Series: Columns 44–49Edit

Third Series, Columns 44–49
Martinus Hamconius
(1625)
Ubbo Emmius
(1616)
Volperus Thaboritus
Beowulf
(ll. 1064–1169)
Finnsburg Fragment Bartholomew de Cotton
(c. 1298)
Wassail incident
Summoning of Oisc and Ebissa
Crowning of Vortimer
Break between Hengist and Britons Gortenir, in­dig­nant at en­croach­ments, waged war against H. and H.
Battles Fought a bat­tle in which the bro­ther of Hen­gist and many oth­ers were killed
At Aylesford In 2nd bat­tle (no names) the bro­ther of Gor­te­nir was killed.
At Crayford

Fourth SeriesEdit

Fourth Series: Columns 1–7Edit

Fourth Series Series, Columns 1–7
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
449—488
Bede
Eccl. Hist., Bk.
I Ch. XIV,XV,XVI
Historia Brittonum Æthelweard
Book I
William of Malmesbury
Book I, Ch.I
Henry of Huntington
Historia anglorum, Bk. II (c. 1154)
At Wippidsfleet (465) Hengist and Æsc fought Welsh—slew 12 eal­dor­men—lost thane Wip­ped (465) Hengist and Æsc fought Brit­ons and 12 Brit­ish chiefs fell, also Sax­on Wip­pid H. and Esc against Brit­ish under 12 chiefs—killed chiefs—took standards—lost Wip­pid
At Derent (2) Success for Vor­ti­mer
At Episford (3) Horsa fell and Ca­te­girn son of Vor­ti­gern
Hengist’s flight to continent
Founding of Leyden
Vortimer’s death Vortimer died Vortiner, who had been the in­sti­ga­tor of the war, perished pre­ma­ture­ly Gortimer fell sick and died, af­ter bat­tle at Ayles­ford—this en­cou­raged Brit­ons—bat­tle at Crayford
His dying injunction To bury his body at rock where Sax­ons first land­ed to keep them from re­turn­ing. He was not obeyed
Hengist’s return
Slaughter at Amesbury He plot­ted to gain coun­try—in­vit­ed King and 300 lead­ers to ban­quet; at sig­nal treach­er­ous­ly slew them As in Hist. Brit. ex­cept that Hen­gist caused nob­les to quar­rel and pre­ci­pi­tate the con­flict

Fourth Series: Columns 8–13Edit

Fourth Series, Columns 8–13
Geoffrey of Monmouth
Historia Regum Britanniae
Geoffrey Gaimar Wace
Roman de Brut (c. 1155)
Lawman
Brut (c. 1190)
Ralph de Diceto
(1190)
Ralph Higden
Polychronicon (1352)
At Wippidsfleet
At Derent 1st upon river Derwent 1st on banks of Darent Vortimer with his bro­thers Pas­cent and Ca­ti­ger marched against Hen­gest and Vor­ti­ger at A­pi­ford on the Dar­went—3200 or Hen­gist’s men fell—Hors and Ca­ti­ger were wound­ed—Hen­gest and Vor­ti­ger fled to Kent
At Episford Second upon the ford at Eps­ford. Hor­sa and Ca­te­girn killed each other Same trick as in Geof­frey; they fled to Sax­land
Hengist’s flight to continent Hengist sent Vor­ti­gern to Vor­ti­mer to ask leave for Sax­ons to de­part and while con­fer­ence was be­ing held he and his fol­low­ers slipped away to Ger­many As in Geof­frey Hengist fled from Vor­ti­mer to Ger­many
Founding of Leyden
Vortimer’s death Rowen bribed a pris­on­er to give Vor­ti­mer a poi­soned drink Rowena, that evil step­mo­ther, caused Vor­ti­mer to be poi­soned Vortimer re­stored Chris­tian­i­ty and built church­es—Ro­wenne of­fered to be­come Chris­tian—Vor­ti­gen de­light­ed made a ban­quet to re­ceive her—fol­low­ing the cus­tom of hon­or­ing the king with was­sail bowl, she poi­soned the drink from a bot­tle car­ried in her breast just after she drank Killed by plots of his step­mo­ther Ro­wein Vortimer hav­ing died, Vor­ti­gern be­came king
His dying injunction Vortigern urged sol­diers to con­tin­ue to de­fence of coun­try—to place a braz­en pyr­a­mid in the port when Sax­ons land­ed and bury his body on top to fright­en them—sol­diers dis­o­beyed and bur­ied him in Lon­don “Take my body and bury it up­on the shore—raise above me a tomb that shall be seen afar—they shall not dare to come.” Bar­ons dis­o­beyed—bur­ied him in Lon­don “Lay my body in a chest and car­ry it to the sea strand where the Sax­ons will see it and fear to land.” (Bur­ied in Lon­don)
Hengist’s return At Ren­wein’s re­quest Vor­ti­gern in­vit­ed Hen­gist to return—Hen­gist start­ed with 300,000 men—Brit­ons pre­pared to dis­pute land­ing—Warned by Ren­wein, Hen­gist pre­tended that learn­ing of Vor­ti­mer’s death he would come with a few fol­low­ers to make terms of peace. Vor­ti­gen agreed to meet him at Am­bri­us on Kal­ends of May Vortigern, in­cit­ed by Ro­wena, in­vit­ed Hen­gist to return with small com­pany. Hen­gist pre­pared 300,000—sent false mes­sage ask­ing for a truce—meet­ing was ar­ranged at Ambres­bury Hengest en­tered Thames with 700 ships each with 300 men­of­fered to let Vor­ti­ger choose 200 and send the rest away. Meet­ing was ar­ranged near Ambres­bury the place was Æl­enge now hight Stone­henge. Hengest re­turned with 300,000 armed men
Slaughter at Amesbury Hengist or­dered each fol­low­er to car­ry dag­ger in gar­ments and at sig­nal to stab Brit­on next to him—460 were thus slain—El­dol, con­sul of Glou­cester, killed 70 and es­caped—Vor­ti­gern ran­somed fled to Wales Hengist or­dered men to con­ceal a sharp, two-edged knife in hose—at sig­nal to slay neigh­bor—near 460 men killed. El­dof found club and killed 70—es­caped on his horse. Vor­ti­gern ran­somed fled to Wales Arrangements ex­press­ly made that no wea­pons should be brought to meet­ing—trick as in Geof­frey—405 slain—Al­dolf took a club from a churl and slew 53—es­caped on a horse As in Geof­frey Gives sum­mary of Geof­frey and as an al­tern­a­time Wil­liam’s ac­count

Fourth Series: Columns 14–19Edit

Fourth Series, Columns 14–19
Florence of Worcester
(1118)
Matthew of Paris
(c. 1253)
Walter of Coventry
(c. 1293)
John of Oxnead
(c. 1293)
Robert of Gloucester
(c. end of 13th Cent.)
Livre des reis de Britannie
(c. 1300)
At Wippidsfleet As in Æthelweard
At Derent Vortimer gained vic­tory at river Der­went
At Episford
Hengist’s flight to continent Leaving women and child­ren Sax­ons fled to Ger­many Hengist was forced to flee to Ger­many
Founding of Leyden
Vortimer’s death 460 Vortimer was poi­soned by Rou­wen Rowen, in­cit­ed by the dev­il, poi­soned Vor­ti­mer
Buried in a high tomb at the hav­en to fright­en pa­gans
Hengist’s return 461 Hengist re­turned with force of 300,000 H. returned with 300,000 men
Slaughter at Amesbury As in Geof­frey Saxons killed 460 no­ble Brit­ons at Sal­is­bury—Vor­ti­ger and El­dolf fled 460 slain, Vor­ti­gern made pris­on­er, El­dol es­caped

Fourth Series: Columns 20–25Edit

Fourth Series, Columns 20–25
Pierre de Langtoft
(c. 1307)
Matthew of Westminster
(c. 1327)
Robert Manning of Brunne
(c. 1338)
Thomas of Malmesbury (?)
(c. 1366)
John of Fordun
(1385)
Richard of Cirencester
(c. 1400)
At Wippidsfleet
At Derent (1) “Upon Dereswent” First bat­tle at riv­er Der­went V. gained 1st vic­tory—killed many at Der­wente
At Episford (2) “That oth­er at Ber­forde” 2nd battle at E­pi­ford; Hor­sa and Ca­ti­gern killed each other
Hengist’s flight to continent Hengist fled to Ger­many As in Geoffrey Horsa, first king of Kent, slain—Hen­gest be­came king in 456. At end of re­sour­ces, leav­ing wo­men and child­ren, H. fled with fol­low­ers to Ger­many
Founding of Leyden
Vortimer’s death Rowenne poi­oned him to death with a wicked drink Vortimer poi­soned by Rou­wenm-bur­ied at Tri­no­van­tum Ronewen poi­soned V. V. poi­soned by Ron­wen Vortimer died by poi­son from this step­mo­ther Ro­wen Vortimer died and with him hope and vic­tory of the Brit­ons
His dying injunction To be buried at sea­side under a high tomb–words for­got­ten–bur­ied in Lon­don
Hengist’s return H. 300,000 men, asked par­ley—to keep men or send them back Hengist re­turned with 300,000 war­riors H. re­turned with 3,000 war­riors Secretly sent for by Ron­wen As in Geoffrey H. summoned by Vor­ti­gern re­turned with 3000 armed aux­il­ia­ries–warned by Ron­wen he ar­ranged for a peace con­fer­ence
Slaughter at Amesbury 340 barons of re­nown slain—Vor­ti­gern made pris­on­er—El­dol es­caped As in Geof­frey Last of May—360 Brit­ish lords slain—El­dok es­caped; V. im­pris­oned Story told brief­ly as in Geoffrey As in Geof­frey Met in dis­trict of Am­bros­ius; 460 Brit­ons slain—El­dol killed 70 Sax­ons

Fourth Series: Columns 26–31Edit

Fourth Series, Columns 26–31
Jehan de Waurin
(c. 1400)
HectorBoice
(1527)
Brut of
England

(c. 1479)
Histoire de Merlin
(c. 1300)
Arthour and Merlin
(c. 1330)
Henry Lovelich
Merlin (c. 1410)
At Wippidsfleet
At Derent (1) On bank of river d’Eured
At Episford (2) Near the vale of d’Epi­ford
Hengist’s flight to continent (3) Third and least mem­or­ab­le bat­tle on the sea­shore, Sax­ons fled to is­land, Thain­et. (4) Vic­tory was com­plete; leav­ing wo­men and child­ren, Sax­ons sailed for Ger­many Scots and Picts re­venge their de­feat—car­ry ban­ner of Christ–make H. flee to Sax­ony Driven from Eng­land by Vor­ti­mer Hengest em­barked for Ger­many
Founding of Leyden
Vortimer’s death R., through an a­tend­ant poi­soned Vor­ti­mer Vortimer poi­soned by R’s treach­ery Ronewenne bribed Vor­ty­mer’s ser­vant to poi­son him
His dying injunction Place his ash­es in a cop­per like­ness of him­self on a pil­lar of stone at port to fright­en Sax­ons (dis­re­gard­ed)
Hengist’s return Returned with 300,000 men H. re­turned on learn­ing Vor­ti­mer’s death—sent mes­sagen­ger who made long or­a­tion—meet­ing ap­point­ed Vortigern re­stored on con­di­ion that he should not let En­gist re­turn–En­gist did re­turn with great force Fortiger pun­ished slayers of Moyne by death—Brit­ons rose in in­sur­rec­tion—F. sent to Hen­gest for aid
Slaughter at Amesbury 460 no­ble Brit­ons slain, El­dol es­caped—Vor­ti­gern made pris­on­er Meeting at Sares­ber­ri—300 on each side—Vor­ti­gern tak­en—all the rest killed but Hel­doll Asked to meet Vor­ti­gern each with knights–or­dered his sol­diers to fol­low and slay at sig­nal

Fourth Series: Columns 32–37Edit

Fourth Series, Columns 32–37
Annals of the Picts Polydore Vergil
(1534)
Robert Fabyan
(1516)
Richard Grafton
(1501)
John Hardyng
(1543)
Raphael Holinshed
(1577)
At Wippidsfleet
At Derent (1) Gave bat­le at river Dar­went—had great vic­tory Same as Fabyan Vortimer fought the “mis­cre­aunts sore upon Der­went” (1) Gave great bat­le on river Der­went and had up­per hand
At Episford (2) Fought them at Epi­foorde or Ag­lis­thorp—Cat­ri­gu­us and Hor­sus fell; Brit­ons were vic­tors Same as Fabyan At Abir­forth he fought with them al­so” (Ca­te­girn and Horne slain) (2) As in Fabyan
Hengist’s flight to continent As in Geoffrey “So went they home with lyt­tel folke alyfe” As in Geoffrey
Founding of Leyden
Vortimer’s death Ronowen see­ing dan­ger of her fa­ther sought such means that Vor­ti­mer was poi­soned; ruled 7 years Same as Fabyan Poisoned by Ro­wayne’s agen­cy Quotes Wil­liam as al­ter­na­tive; but stres­ses Fab­yan’s ac­count
His dying injunction Respects Geof­frey’s ac­count To be bur­ied on the coast in a pil­lar of brass (not o­beyed)
Hengist’s return Vortiger sent for Hen­gest who came back with 300 ships Gives ac­count of his return but notes in the mar­gin his be­lief that H. nev­er left the coun­try af­ter he “once set foot with­in this Isle”
Slaughter at Amesbury Vortigern re­stored made war on Hen­gist—Hen­gist asked for peace treaty—the rest as in Geof­frey—E­dolf Earl of Ches­ter slew 17 Quotes Geoffrey Plot as tra­di­tion­al­ly giv­en–400 “lordes” slain Quotes Geof­frey and Wil­liam

Fourth Series: Columns 38–43Edit

Fourth Series, Columns 38–43
John Milton
History of Britain (1670)
Edmund Spenser
Faerie Queene (1590)
Michael Drayton
Poly-Olbion (1620)
Cornelius Kempius
(1588)
Supfidus Petrus
(1590)
Bernardus Furmerius
(1609)
At Wippidsfleet A. S. Chronicle
At Derent (Given as reported)
At Episford (Given as reported V. gained vic­tory in a great bat­tle at Ep­pis­ford. H. re­tired to Than­et
Hengist’s flight to continent Fed from Guor­ti­mer—away 5 years Hengist fled, driv­en out by Vor­ti­mer H. was so pressed that he es­caped in his fleet to the con­tin­ent
Founding of Leyden Founded by the Brit­ons who fled for Hen­gist;“Brit­ten­burgh” tow­er yet to be seen near Lei­den Built a cas­tle on the east bank and for­ti­fied it for a safe re­treat—called Lei­den Founded Lei­den on the Rhine—built tow­er for safe­ty
Vortimer’s death As in Hist. Brit. Shortly af­ter Vor­ti­gern’s vic­tory he died H. was in­formed by mes­sage from Ro­ven­na of the death of the en­e­my who had driv­en him out
His dying injunction As in Hist. Brit.
Hengist’s return H. rid of this great op­pos­er, re­turned with great for­ces</smart> H. re­turned and plot­ted how he might gain the king­don from Vor­ti­ger H. with as great a force as he could col­lect un­ex­pect­ed­ly re­turned to Brit­ain
Slaughter at Amesbury As in Geof­frey, but num­ber slain 300 Soon after re­con­cil­i­a­tion of Hen­gist and Vor­ti­gern 300 Brit­ish Lords are slain while sit­ting at the board of Hen­gist Slaughter of 300 as in Hist. Brit. Plot as tra­di­tion­al­ly giv­en—400 “lordes” slain As in Geof­frey, but num­ber slain 450—no men­tion of El­dol

Fourth Series: Columns 44–49Edit

Fourth Series, Columns 44–49
Martinus Hamconius
(1625)
Ubbo Emmius
(1616)
Volperus Thaboritus
Beowulf
(ll. 1064–1169)
Finnsburg Fragment Bartholomew de Cotton
(c. 1298)
At Wippidsfleet
At Derent
At Episford
 
In the 3rd, Gor­te­nir gained the vic­tory, the Fris­ians fled to ships.
Hengist’s flight to continent
Founding of Leyden Hengist found­ed Lei­den
Vortimer’s death Gortenir died not long after
His dying injunction
Hengist’s return Hengist with a great throng of Fris­ians came back and be­gan to plot
Slaughter at Amesbury Refers to the story but does not tell it ex­cept to call at­ten­tion to Fris­ian sig­nal As in Hist. Brit.

Fifth SeriesEdit

Fifth Series: Columns 1–7Edit

Fifth Series, Columns 1–7
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
449—488
Bede
Eccl. Hist., Bk.
I Ch. XIV,XV,XVI
Historia Brittonum Æthelweard
Book I
William of Malmesbury
Book I, Ch.I
Henry of Huntington
Historia anglorum, Bk. II (c. 1154)
Signal Nimed eure Saxes
Full con­quest and set­tle­ment Took pos­ses­sion of coun­try Sax­ons great­ly in­creased, both in strength and num­bers They drive Brit­ons out and take pos­ses­sion of is­land
Revival of Britons Under Am­bro­si­us Au­re­li­us, a Roman, waged war ­until Bad­des­cown-hill After deah of Hen­gist un­der Ar­thur Am­bro­si­us Ro­man King af­ter Vor­ti­gern–with aid of war­like Ar­thur quelled bar­bar­ians
Hengist’s death Inferred from state­ment (488), “Æsc suc­ceed­ed to the king­dom” After death of his fa­ther Hengest, Octa came from the si­nis­tral part of the is­land to the king­dom of Kent In 488 Æsc began to reign in Kent Hengist died in the 39th year after his ar­riv­al Hengist died in the 44th year after his in­va­sion of Brit­ain
Stonehenge as a monument
Hengist’s descendants Octa, E­bis­sa Æsc Esc—Ot­ha—Ermenric Esc

Fifth Series: Columns 8–13Edit

Fifth Series, Columns 8–13
Geoffrey of Monmouth
Historia Regum Britanniae
Geoffrey Gaimar Wace
Roman de Brut (c. 1155)
Lawman
Brut (c. 1190)
Ralph de Diceto
(1190)
Ralph Higden
Polychronicon (1352)
Signal Nimet oure Saxas Nimad eoure Seax (1) Nimet eoure sexes; (2) Nemeth oure seaxes Nymeth youre sexes
Full con­quest and set­tle­ment Saxons took Lon­don and af­ter­wards York, Lin­coln, and Win­ches­ter, wast­ing the coun­try and des­troy­ing the peo­ple as wolves do sheep Vor­ti­gern granted Sus­sex, Es­ses, and Mid­dle­sex as ran­som in ad­di­tion to Kent Hengest took all this rich king­dom—di­vid­ed it among his men—gave an earl Kent—gave his cham­ber­lain Mid­dle­sex—Vor­ti­gern gave up his land and fled over Se­vern The Sax­ons oc­cu­pied al­most all Brit­ain
Revival of Britons Aurelius Am­bro­si­us and his bro­ther with 10,000 men re­turned—Brit­ish ral­lied about them—crowned Au­re­li­us, burned V. in his tower­ad­vanced against Sax­ons Aurelius ral­lied the Brit­ons and marched north against Hen­gist who was try­ing to get help from Scot­land Aurele re­gained crown—burned Vor­ti­ger in his tow­er and pur­sued Hen­gest to the Hum­ber Brief state­ment from Geof­frey Quotes Geof­frey and Wil­liam;
Hengist’s death Hengist de­feat­ed at field of Maus­be­li–fled to Cu­nun­ge­burg (Co­nis­burg). He was tak­en by El­dol—Later by ad­vice of Bish­op El­dad, was be­head­ed by El­dol Taken by El­dof and be­head­ed as in Geof­frey Final bat­tle giv­en in full de­tail—Hen­gest tak­en by Al­dof (as in Geof­frey) and be­headed. Hen­gest bur­ied ac­cord­ing to his pa­gan rites Eldol killed Hen­gist Quotes Geoff­rey and Wil­liam
Stonehenge as a monument Aurelius, to get a mon­u­ment for the slaugh­tered Brit­ons, bur­ied on Sal­is­bury plain, com­mis­sioned Mer­lin to bring from Mt. Kil­laur­us in Ire­land the great stones known as the Gi­ant’s Dance—By his art Mer­lin ac­com­plished this feat—he set up the stones in their o­ri­ginal form about the bur­ial place. They were de­di­cat­ed with great cer­e­mony by king and peo­ple Auelius called ma­sons to build mon­u­ment—was ad­vised to send for Mer­lin—mov­ing of Gi­ant’s Dance as in Geof­frey with ad­di­tion of bat­tle of king of Ire­land to get the stones Auerelie called coun­sel at Mer­lin’s ad­vice to de­cide upon mon­u­ment. Mer­lin and U­ther in charge of ex­ped­i­tion—o­ver­came king Gil­lo­maur—brought stones hack and set them up



Gives as tra­di­tion (si fas sit credere) that Mer­lin brought from Ire­land the “Co­re­am Gi­gan­te­um which now on the plain of Sar­um is called Stan­hen­ges”.

Also speaks of Ar­thur and Au­re­li­us as bur­ied be­neah these stones. Æsc (son) suc­ceed­ed Hen­gest—reigned 24 years
Hengist’s descendants Octa (Hen­gist’s son); E­o­sa (Oc­ta’s kins­man) son, Os­sa (cou­sin of Oc­ta), E­bis­sa (cou­sin-ne­phew of Hen­gist) Octa, son Os­sa (cou­sin of Oc­ta), E­bis­sa (cou­sin-ne­phew of Hen­gist) Octa; E­bis­sa—“his wed bro­ther”; Os­sa–“The other”

Fifth Series: Columns 14–19Edit

Series, Columns 14–19
Florence of Worcester
(1118)
Matthew of Paris
(c. 1253)
Walter of Coventry
(c. 1293)
John of Oxnead
(c. 1293)
Robert of Gloucester
(c. end of 13th Cent.)
Livre des reis de Britannie
(c. 1300)
Signal Nimis oure sexes Nimeth youre sexes
Full conquest and settlement Saxons laid Brit­ain waste, Vor­ti­gern fled into Wales, 462 The pa­gan Sax­ons held all Lo­ca­ri­ani Saxons took pos­ses­sion of whole land By the wheel of for­tune Sax­ons were all at the top and Brit­ains at the bot­tom
Revival of Britons 464—487 Au­re­li­us re­con­quered coun­try Aurelius en­tered Brit­ain, be­sieged and burned Vor­ti­gern British un­der Au­re­li­us burned Vor­ti­gern and re­gained coun­try Arthurian sec­tion omit­ted—nar­ra­tive pro­ceeds to tell how coun­try was di­vid­ed in­to pet­ty king­doms—Hep­tar­chy, etc.
Hengist’s death (488) Hengst died af­ter reign­ing 34 years in Kent As in Geoffrey Aurelius killed Hen­gist and ex­ter­min­at­ed the Sax­ons Taken by El­dol in bat­tle—lat­er be­head­ed
Stonehenge as a monument As in Geoffrey As in Geoffrey As in Geoffrey
Hengist’s descendants

Fifth Series: Columns 20–25Edit

Fifth Series, Columns 20–25
Pierre de Langtoft
(c. 1307)
Matthew of Westminster
(c. 1327)
Robert Manning of Brunne
(c. 1338)
Thomas of Malmesbury (?)
(c. 1366)
John of Fordun
(1385)
Richard of Cirencester
(c. 1400)
Signal Neme yhoure sexes Nymet oure saxes Nimth out your sexes Nimeth oute your Sexes Zonre Sexes Nymeth youre Sexes
Full conquest and settlement London, Lin­coln, York, and Win­ches­ter tak­en—Hen­gist su­preme—Vor­ti­ger fled to Wales Saxons drove out Brit­ains—des­troyed church­es V. yield­ed Sus­sex, Ox­ford­shire, Mid­dle­sex, fled to Wales Vor­ti­gern cap­tured all Brit­ons killed but El­dolf As in Geoffrey with added details Vortigern, seized and im­pris­oned, was forced to give up cit­ies and strong­holds—re­tired into Wales
Revival of Britons Ambosius ral­lied Brit­ish—burned Vor­ti­ger—de­feat­ed Pa­gans British sent for Au­re­li­us who burned Vor­ti­gern Aurelius and U­the be­siege and burn V.—H. tries to get help of Scots and Picts Under lead­er­ship of Au­re­li­us Vor­ti­gern was slain, king­dom re­gained Britons sum­moned Au­re­li­us Am­bro­si­a­nus and U­ter­pen­dra­gon from Brit­ain, chose Au­re­li­us king and over­came Vor­ti­gen and He­gist
Hengist’s death Edol took H.—by judg—ment of ar—my “cut of the head of Hen–gist who flinched in no way” As in Geoffrey Eldok took H. and sent him as a pres­ent to Au­re­li­us—by de­cis­ion of coun­cil H. be­head­ed by El­dok Taken and be­head­ed by Eldolf Beheaded by El­dol as in Geof­frey
Stonehenge as a monument As in Geoffrey As in Geoffrey As in Geoffrey—Gi­ant’s Dance brought from Ireland and set up as mem­or­i­al to no­blds slain by Hen­gest As in Geoffrey
Hengist’s descendants

Fifth Series: Columns 26–31Edit

Fifth Series, Columns 26–31
Jehan de Waurin
(c. 1400)
Hector Boece
(1527)
Brut of
England

(c. 1479)
Histoire de Merlin
(c. 1300)
Arthour and Merlin
(c. 1330)
Henry Lovelich
Merlin (c. 1410)
Signal Nimet oure saxas “Now is tyme forto speke of love and pees”
Full conquest and settlement Saxons be­came mas­ter of all Brit­ain—V. fled to Wales V. gave over all Brit­ain and went into Wales—H. slew Brit­ons and des­troyed church­es Engish went through the land and seized all the land—called it En­gis­tes land di­vid­ed it in­to sev­en king­doms Angwys and Fortager put Brit­ons to flight—F. built tow­er on Sal­is­bury plain
Revival of Britons Au­re­li­us and U­the led Brit­ons—burned V.—van­quished Sax­ons Britons ral­lied at com­ing of Au­re­li­us—burnt V. in his cas­tle—got help of Scots and Picts—de­feated Hun­gest Britons rose under—Au­ril­am­bros Pendrgon be­sieged Angis in his cas­tle Aurelius and U­ther came to Win­chester. F. and H. met them and were de­feat­ed
Hengist’s death Edol captured and be­head­ed Hen­gist Hun­gest was slain in bat­tle by Au­re­li­us who gave Scots and Picts lands be­tween Hum­ber and Tweed for their help Slain in bat­tle in the north coun­try whith­er Au­ril­am­bros had pur­sued him Engis entered tent of U­ther with knife to kill him—U­ther warned by Mer­lin hid and killed En­gis as he passed out Fortager fled to cas­tle—was burned—Angys shut him­self in a cas­tle, and was be­sieged by U­ther—With aid of Mer­lin Au­re­li­us slew Angys Warned by Mer­lin U­ter lay awake and saw Aug­wys enter tent to slay him–U­ther sur­prised and slew Aug­wys
Stonehenge as a monument As in Geoffrey but with em­pha­sis on rel­i­gious el­e­ment As in Geoffrey—Place called Ston­hynges for­ev­er­more
Hengist’s descendants Otta (his son)

Fifth Series: Columns 32–37Edit

Fifth Series, Columns 32–37
Annals of the Picts Polydore Vergil
(1534)
Robert Fabyan
(1516)
Richard Grafton
(1501)
John Hardyng
(1543)
Raphael Holinshed
(1577)
Signal “Nempnyth your Sex­ix” Nempnith your sexes Nemyth your sexes Nempt your sexes
Full conquest and settlement H. ruled coun­try and called it Hen­gist­us land or Eng­land; oth­ers say it was An­glia or En­gle land Same a Fabyan Aurelius Am­brose re­took coun­try from H. H. peo­pled the land with Sax­ons
Revival of Britons Under Au­re­li­us the Brit­ons re­vived, put Sax­ons to flight, and slew Hor­sus Aurelius ral­lied Brit­ons; burned Vor­ti­gern in tow­er Same as Fabyan Aurelius Am­brose re­took coun­try from H. As in Geoffrey
Hengist’s death Aurelius pur­sued Hen­gist­us to York–met his force at Dan­cas­tre–slew him and a wond­rous num­ber of Ger­mans Hengist died in his bed when he had reigned 24 years—oth­ers say that he was slain in bat­tle by Au­re­li­us Same as Fabyan Duke El­doll took Hen­gest—he (Hen­gest) was be­head­ed with a sword Gives 2 versions: (1) taken in bat­tle and be­head­ed by El­dol; (2) slain at River Dune
Stonehenge as a monument Stones brought from Ire­land some say by Au­re­li­us with Mer­lin’s help, oth­ers by U­ther Same as Fabyan The king made a wor­thy se­pul­ture at Stone­henge for the slain Brit­ons As in Geoffrey
Hengist’s descendants 2 sons, Os­sa and Ot­ha Hengist’s son Oc­ta or Os­ca regned 24 years Same as Fabyan Oc­ca, son of H., Oy­sa, son of Oc­ca. “After En­gest it called was En­ges­tes land; by cor­rupt speach Eng­lande it high there­fore, And af­ter­warde so that name it ever bore” Hengist left 2 sons, Os­ca and Oc­ca

Fifth Series: Columns 38–43Edit

Fifth Series, Columns 38–43
John Milton
History of Britain (1670)
Edmund Spenser
Faerie Queene (1590)
Michael Drayton
Poly-Olbion (1620)
Cornelius Kempius
(1588)
Supfidus Petrus
(1590)
Bernardus Furmerius
(1609)
Signal Nimet oure saxes Nimnet oure Saxes (Fris­ian words) Nimmet ouvre sacxen
Full conquest and settlement H. add­ed to his ter­ri­tory 3 pro­in­ces giv­en by Vor­ti­gern as ran­som Engist first be­gan a king­dom in Kent, and his heirs ex­tend­ed it to the Hum­ber V. gave up his king­dom for his life–H. began to reign H. pur­sued the Brit­ons to “E­ri­ford­um” on the river Dar­ent and slew to many that he reigned in peace there­af­ter
Revival of British Under Am­bro­si­us Au­re­li­us Brit­ons ral­lied and drove out Sax­ons (partly) Ambrosius Au­re­li­an­us of Ro­man des­cent as­sumed pur­ple at death of Vor­ti­gern and turned arms gainst H.
Hengist’s death In 489 Hen­gist died—first King of Kent H. was brought to shame­ful death by Au­re­li­us and U­ther Hngist died not long af­ter H. de­feat­ed in bat­tle on the river Don—tak­en and be­head­ed
Stonehenge as a monument Stonehenge dole­ful mon­u­ments and e­ter­nal marks of treas­on
Hengist’s descendants His son Oe­ric sur­named Oisc, suc­ceed­ed him H. suc­ceed­ed by son Oc­ha or O­rich (sur­name Ho­ersch)—Min­ric—E­del­berht;Wil­li­bord (a de­cend­ant) Orichius—Oc­ta, E­bis­sa (Kent) (Ve­su­a­lia—Ang­ri­var­ian Dukes to Vi­te­kind) O­ri­chi­us (Has­cus) his son suc­ceed­ed him—Oc­co, E­bis­sa, and Ed­el­red, daugh­ter Os­tri­da; O­ro­nia and Vil­le­gis—Wil­li­brord; Ber­ta and Si­ge­bert—Svid­bert

Fifth Series: Columns 44–49Edit

Fifth Series, Columns 44–49
Martinus Hamconius
(1625)
Ubbo Emmius
(1616)
Volperus Thaboritus
Beowulf
(ll. 1064–1169)
Finnsburg Fragment Bartholomew de Cotton
(c. 1298)
Signal Nimet oure saxen Nymet oure Saxa (Notes that these are Fris­ian words)
Full conquest and settlement
Revival of British
Hengist’s death Not much after Hen­gist died Some ear­ly trans­la­tors mis­con­strue ll.1142–1145 as an ac­count of H.’s death
Stonehenge as a monument
Hengist’s descendants Orich—Oc­ta, King of Kent; E­bis­sa, Duke of Ang­ria S. Wil­li­brord from Hen­gist After his death Oc­ha passed “de sin­is­tra parte Brit­taniae” to the king­dom of Kent—Or­rich or Oisck—Oc­ca—Iur­minri­ci—Ed­il­brecht (Bede II, 5) From these came Wil­li­brord

ReferencesEdit

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